HOMEBREW Digest #2350 Mon 17 February 1997

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  AOB/AHA (cathy)
  Candi Sugar ... ("Pat Babcock")
  AOB/AHA part II (cathy)
  thermometer in fermentation tank (PVanslyke)
  marzen recipe (Al Stevens)
  Hop oils, gravity of starters ("Raymond Estrella")
  Sierra Nevada Wheat Recipe? (JCMaretti)
  Canning wort/rebutting criticism (Harlan Bauer)
  Bill's "Errors" Post (Alex Santic)
  What's the preferred breed of dog for homebrewing (Rex Clingan)
  Aerators, De-skunking ("David R. Burley")
  Recipe for Irish Cream (Christopher Tkach)
  Wheelers Porter..Part 5. (Rob Moline)
  Wheelers Porter...Part 6. (Rob Moline)
  Secondary fermentation in bottles? (Tim Plummer)
  newbie question - cloudy Altbier! (Tim Plummer)
  Cooper's Sparkling Ale - yeast/recipe? (dbrigham)
  mash amounts, blonde ale ("Raymond Estrella")
  RE: No sparge brew (Alex Santic)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Fri, 14 Feb 1997 17:38:40 -0800 From: cathy <cathy at aob.org> Subject: AOB/AHA Part 1 of a 2 part message: Louis Bonham wrote: > As many of you may recall, late last year there was a lively discussion > in this newsgroup regarding perceived problems with the AOB/AHA. > Among other topics, there were a number of questions regarding: > > 1. AOB/AHA finances. Specifically, questions were raised regarding > much AOB president Charlie Papazian makes from this supposedly "nonprofit" > organization, in terms of salary and paid travel, as well as other > questions regarding spending in the AOB/AHA. These concerns were > amplified by the AOB's rather bizarre refusal to release copies of > their IRS Form 990 upon request. Let me stress again, that the AOB followed the law with respect to our 990's. In response to Louis' follow-up message about the IRS laws, the new law he is discussing does not go into effect until 60 days after the IRS issues regulations related to that law. Those regulations are currently under discussion but have not been issued. > > 2. AOB/AHA's corporate structure. Questions were raised why the > > officers and directors of the AOB/AHA appear to be selected by > > and accountable to only one person -- Charlie Papazian -- and why > > Charlie is the only AOB officer or director who has any expertise > > or reputation as a brewer. Questions were also raised why the AOB/AHA > > steadfastly refuses to even *discuss* why AHA (or IBS) members have > > no say in the selection of officers or directors. (I opined that > > there was absolutely no legitimate business, legal, or ethical > > justification for this anti-democratic position.) > Again, I attempted before to explain the organizational structure of he AOB many months ago. Please understand that we are a business with a board of directors made up of business and professional people in the Boulder/Denver area. These people take their board positions very seriously. They do not answer to Charlie, in fact, it is exactly the opposite, he answers to the board. We took a suggestion from many of our members (including e-mails posted to HBD) and have created two liason positions from the board of directors to both the AHA board of advisors and the IBS board of advisors. > > > 3. AHA Board of Advisors. Longtime Board of Advisors members have > > complained that this body is a powerless joke that has always been > > simply ignored by the AHA bureaucracy. This has prompted questions > > as to why the Board of Advisors should not be give some real oversight > > authority over the AHA bureaucracy. This discussion was also fueled > > by the AHA President's inexplicable refusal to post copies of the > > bylaws for the Board of Advisors -- bylaws promulgated and decreed > > by the AHA bureaucracy and that, according to some Board of Advisors > > members, prove that the Board of Advisors is nothing but window >dressing. > > Again, we explained that the AHA by-laws are fairly long (approx. 6 pages) and we didn't want to use the HBD band-width for something only few people may be interested in. So, how's this: as we offered before you can call or e-mail to get a copy AND we will put them up on our web page by Friday February 21st. It is unfortunate that we did not use the previous board of advisors as effectively as we should have. Obviously reading Jeff Frane's comments, he was very frustrated as a board member. We've just expanded the number of members on the AHA board of advisors (BOA) as well as expanding their role. Again, the role of the BOA is to advise, keep us abreast of our members needs and contribute to new programs. In order to take advantage of their expertise, we will be creating sub-committees to focus board members on specific areas of concern. This will also make it easier for AHA members who are not on the board to give input to the BOA. Again, in order to keep band-width down, you can e-mail or call for a list of advisors OR look on our web page by next Friday. On the issue of voting for the board of advisors. Again, as Melinda Bywaters posted in December, 'the 1995 AHA membership survey asked "Would you like the opportunity to vote for the AHA board of advisors?". The overwhelming response was "no" (68% of the respondents did not want to vote for the board of advisors)'. Also note that the IBS brewery members want to vote for their BOA representatives and do so annually. Sorry these may have come to you out of order. Cheers! Cathy - -- Cathy Ewing Vice President Association of Brewers (303) 447-0816 x 120 (voice) 736 Pearl Street (303) 447-2825 (fax) PO Box 1679 cathy at aob.org (e-mail) Boulder, CO 80306-1679 info at aob.org (aob info) U.S.A. http://beertown.org/aob (web) Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 14 Feb 1997 19:31:28 +0500 From: "Pat Babcock" <pbabcock at oeonline.com> Subject: Candi Sugar ... Greetings, Beerlings! Take me to your lager... Way back when I dabbled in making hard candy, we used to drop spoons full of the molten sugar into water to form it into balls (in fact, this method is used to determine if the heated sugar is yet "crack"). Could this work for the candi sugar formulators, too?!? Drop it in, fish them out, and let them air-dry. I think I'll try this... See ya! Pat Babcock in Canton, Michigan (Western Suburb of Detroit) pbabcock at oeonline.com URL: http://oeonline.com/~pbabcock/ Visit the HomeBrew Flea Market via my homepage! URL: http://oeonline.com/~pbabcock/ Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 14 Feb 1997 17:49:37 -0800 From: cathy <cathy at aob.org> Subject: AOB/AHA part II > Here is the next part of Louis Bonham's concerns: > > > According to the last available (tax year 1995) Form 990 for the AOB > > (recently obtained by Jim Liddil through a FOIA request and forwarded > > to me), Charlie Papazian received in excess of $100,000 in annual > > compensation from this "nonprofit" organization, plus substantial > > pension contributions. > > > And what does Charlie do for this largess? He doesn't handle the > > day-to-day operations of the AOB or oversight of its divisions -- > > that's Cathy Ewing (who also collected a very tidy sum in 1995 to > > do so). He doesn't manage the AHA, IBS, or Brewers Publications: > > each of those divisions have well-paid managers as well. He doesn't > > serve as the editor of Zymurgy or New Brewer -- both of those have > > paid editors. He doesn't even write for Brewers Publications > > -- his books have been published by for-profit publishers such as Avon. > > I will let Charlie respond directly to your attacks. > > > > Nor does he, as AOB President, run the GABF -- that's been spun off > > to another nonprofit corporation (Brewing Matters), that just happens > > to office in the AOB's headquarters. (Whether Charlie collects any > > additional salary or compensation from Brewing Matters remains to be > > seen. I'd like to think that the AOB or Brewing Matters would just > > answer an inquiry to that effect, but given the AOB's track record of > > nondisclosure I suspect that another FOIA request will be needed to > > find out. Stay tuned.) > I am President of Brewing Matters and Charlie is on the board of directors. Neither of us receive any compensation (salary, bonuses or other) from that organization. The Brewing Matters financials are published annually in a newletter to the brewing community. Again, if you want a copy call or e-mail. [snip] Finally, it appears that the question of brewing expertise at the AOB is cause for concern. Let me assure you that everyone at the AOB brews at least three times a year and that we have a pool of brewing talent. Below is a list of staff members, their brewing experience and brewing education: Charlie Papazian (need I say more) Mark Duros - 3 years professional brewer: Oxford and Oasis Siebel Short Course; American Brewers Guild Graduate; 6 years homebrewing Jim Parker - 1 year professional brewer: Dimmers Moderates IBS professional brewing forum 10 years homebrewing Dena Nishek - 5 1/2 years homebrewing several advanced homebrewing courses; American Brewers Guild and ASBC, HopTech Course, Homebrew U, Siebel Off Flavors Course, Beer Camp Richard Bachus- 7 years professional brewer: Free State Caroline Duncker- 5 years homebrewing Judged 10 competitions; Siebel Off Flavors; Hop Barley & Alers Club Member Linda Starck - 19 year homebrewing; homebrewing classes, judge, steward, and competition participant Brian Rezac - 3 years homebrewing; finalist in Longshot Competition, Tribe Club Member, developing pilot brewery at Overland Stagestop Brewing David Edgar - 9 years homebrewing, Siebel Short Course graduate, judged 6 competitions, brewery consultant, beer lecturer Larry Berreth - 5 years homebrewing, National Homebrew Competition Specialty Beer Category 3rd place winner, completed judging class Kyle Keazer - 6 years homebrewing, professional brewing intern, homebrewing instructor Sheri Winter - 5 year homebrewing, American Brewers Guild class graduate, Yeast Forum attendee, homebrewing class attendee Cathy Ewing - 4 years homebrewing, homebrewing class attendee, Yeast Forum attendee, lecturer Bob Pease - 3 years homebrewing, homebrewing class attendee Edward McDowell - 3 1/2 years, American Brewers Guild class graduate Dave Glickson - 3 years homebrewing Nancy Volke - 3 1/2 years homebrewing Wendy Lyons - 4 years homebrewing, homebrewing class attendee Tom Clark - 4 years homebrewing Nancy Johnson - 4 years homebrewing Casey Koehler - 4 years homebrewing Chris Lowenstein - 3 years homebrewing Tyra Segars - 2 years homebrewing Stephanie Johnson - 2 years homebrewing Melinda Bywaters - 2 years homebrewing Kim Adams - 2 years homebrewing Teresa Duggan - 2 years homebrewing Kendall Costich - 1 1/2 years homebrewing Mark Snyder - 1 year homebrewing Carolyn Robertson - 1 year homebrewing Hope no one had any brewing related questions!:-) Cheers! Cathy - -- Cathy Ewing Vice President Association of Brewers (303) 447-0816 x 120 (voice) 736 Pearl Street (303) 447-2825 (fax) PO Box 1679 cathy at aob.org (e-mail) Boulder, CO 80306-1679 info at aob.org (aob info) U.S.A. http://beertown.org (web) Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 14 Feb 1997 19:52:40 -0500 (EST) From: PVanslyke at aol.com Subject: thermometer in fermentation tank Hi all, Having just attained my goal of a stainless primary fermentation tank complete with 1/2" bottom drain and ball valve (e-mail me if you want a description of where I came up with this), I would like now to drill a hole in the side for a thermometer. What I need to know isx what to use for a thermometer, what size hole, and how to keep the soon-to-be beer from leaking out. Paul VanSlyke >>> brewing and relaxing in Deposit, NY Return to table of contents
Date: 14 Feb 97 21:59:39 EST From: Al Stevens <72704.743 at CompuServe.COM> Subject: marzen recipe Jerry Cunningham <gcunning at census.gov> requested a marzen recipe, here is one I made recently, and enjoyed. It wasn't as malty as I was looking for, but within the range of the style. SUDS Recipe Report Page: 1 02/13/1997 18:45:59 My Favorite Marzen Category : Marzen/Oktoberfest Method : Full Mash Starting Gravity : 1.056 Ending Gravity : 1.014 Alcohol content : 5.4% Recipe Makes : 5.0 gallons Total Grain : 11.00 lbs. Color (srm) : 11.9 Efficiency : 75% Hop IBUs : 25.9 Malts/Sugars: 1.00 lb. DeWolf Cosyns Aromatic 5.00 lb. Munich Light 5.00 lb. Pilsner 2-row Hops: 1.50 oz. Hal Hersbrucker 3.2% 60 min 1.50 oz. Hal Hersbrucker 3.2% 30 min Protein rest at 122 F 20 minutes 1st decoct to bring main mash to 150 F 2nd decoct to bring main mash to 165 F Pitched Wyeast 2124 Bohenian Lager (LARGE starter) fermented in primary 3 weeks at 45 F lagered ~4 weeks at ~40 F On the subject of beer yeast to make bread The following excerpts are from Mrs Beetons book of Houshold Management (1859-61) (puctuation is hers, spelling mistakes are probably mine) Bread-Making. Panification, or bread-making, consists of the following processes, in the case of Wheaten flour. Fifty or sixty per cent of water is added to the flour, with the addition of some leavening matter, and preferably, of yeast from malt and hops. ....... The yeast must be good and fresh, if the bread is to be digestable and nice. Stale yeast produces, instead of vinous fermentation, an acetous fermentation, which flavours the bread and makes it disagreeable. A poor thin yeast produces an imperfect fermentation, the result being a heavy unwholesome loaf. ... Yeast from home-brewed beer is generally preferred to any other ; it is very bitter, and, on that account, should be well washed, and be put away until the thick mass settles. If it still continues bitter, the process should be repeated ; and, before being used, all the water floating at the top must be poured off. German yeast is now very much used, and should be moistened, and thoroughly mixed with the milk or water with which the bread is to be made. ... Yeast must always be good of its kind, and in a fitting state to produce ready and proper fermentation. Yeast of strong beer or ale produsec more effect than that of milder kinds; and the fresher the yeast, the smaller the quantity will be required to raise the dough. ... To Make Yeast for Bread Ingredients: 1 1/2 oz. of hops, 3 quarts of water, 1 lb. of bruised malt, 1/2 pint of yeast. Mode: Boil the hops in the water for 20 minutes; let it stand for about 5 minutes, then add it to the 1 lb of bruised malt prepared as for brewing. Let the mixture stand covered till about likewarm ; then put in not quite 1/2 pint of yeast; keep it warm, and let it work 3 or 4 hours; then put it into small 1/2 pint bottles (ginger-beer bottles are best for the purpose), cork them well, and tie them down. The yeast is now ready for use ; it will keep good for a few weeks, and i bottle will be sufficient for 18 lbs of flour. When required for use, boil 3 lbs of potatoes without salt, mash them in the same water in which they were boiled, and rub them through a colander. Stir in about 1/2 lb. of flour ; then put in the yeast, pour it into the middle of the flour, and let it stand warm on the hearth all night, and in the morning let it be quite warm when it is kneaded. The bottles of yeast require very careful opening, as it is generally exceedingly ripe. ************************************************************* and you wonder why we call beer "liquid bread" Al Stevens Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 97 05:24:23 UT From: "Raymond Estrella" <ray-estrella at msn.com> Subject: Hop oils, gravity of starters George Schamel writes, >I have used the Hop Tech hop oils and late hop essences. >These were the Premium British Blend, Pure East Kent Goldings, >Late Hop Essence Floral, and Late Hop Essence Spicy. I was not >at all happy with the results in all cases. Just my experience. >I am interested in hearing other opinions as well. I contacted Morris Hanbury USA in Yakima, WA about purchasing direct from them hop extracts for experimentation in my brews. (They supply a very large percentage of the hops that are sold in most homebrew shops.) My call was forwarded to Gerard Lemmens, whom I found out was the executive vice-president of the company. Although he is in the business to sell product, and I could have set up a business account, (I have pretty cool employers) the man was extremely honest with me about their company's extracts. He told me that they do not compare to a "real" hopped beer, and that they are mostly used to correct a hopping problem. (I forgot to add my finishing hops Marge, dogh!) I appreciated the candidness. Julio canseco writes, >I have noticed that a 1.040 SG is referenced regarding starters. What >is the importance of this? Will a higher gravity shock the liquid yeast? >I normally add an overflowing cup of LME (syrup) in a half gallon of >boiling water and haven't bothered to check the SG. My starters seem >OK and the final beer is fine. Would someone please expand on this? >Is the starter SG related to the style of beer it is for? It looks like you are making a starter of 1.054 to 1.058 depending on how long you boil it. (Reducing volume) That is kind of high going right from a Wyeast pack, although I have never checked the O.G. of one, I don't have that small of a hydrometer. Yes, the starter S.G. is related to the style of beer you are brewing. (Starter, starter gravity, am I stutter, stutter stuttering?) You want to condition the yeast to be ready to live, multiply, and work in the environment that you toss it into. Yeast volume also comes into play. Your 1.055, 1 step starter may be fine for a 1.050 Brown ale, but would benefit from another boost of the same gravity, but a larger size, for a 1.050 Dunkel. That same starter would be great for a 1.052 Saison, but would need to be built up to the gravity to be used in a 1.090 Trippel. I make a 1.045 400 ml. 1st. starter, and a 1.055 800 ml. 2nd starter for all my brews. If I am making a strong brew, I will build it up to within .015 of my expected O.G. I hope this makes sense. Ray Estrella Cottage Grove MN USA ray-estrella at msn.com *******Never relax, constantly worry, have a better homebrew.******* Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 03:06:56 -0500 (EST) From: JCMaretti at aol.com Subject: Sierra Nevada Wheat Recipe? Does anybody know where I can find a recipe for mock Sierra Nevada Wheat? Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 02:23:52 -0600 From: blacksab at midwest.net (Harlan Bauer) Subject: Canning wort/rebutting criticism Jim Layton writes: >I won't dispute that Harlan gets good results using this method, but I >doubt that shaking the wort prior to opening the jar really dissolves much >oxygen... Jim, I think you're right! Al K makes the same point in the next post and Chris Goll pointed this out to me in a private e-mail. Without really thinking about it, I was following something I'd read in Rajotte. Since I shake the jars before opening them, I suspect they're not getting ANY oxygen, or at least very little. I'll do a few side by side comparisons--shake, then open and pitch, vs. open, shake and pitch and see if I notice any difference. I'll post results. Al K writes: >Absolutely trub-free starters (in my opinion) are not the best thing. >Trub contains many yeast nutrients so that leaving some trub in the >wort (and certainly in the starter wort) is believed to be beneficial >to the yeast. It's clear that too much trub in the main wort can lead >to haze and (possibly) increased higher (fusel) alcohol production, >but personally, I believe that these would be negligible in a starter >and the sterols from the trub would only help. Comments? I've wondered about this. Again, I've been following Rajotte here. Let me do a side by side and see if I can detect a difference, but now that you mention it, I think you may be right. Thanks for pointing this out. While I'm at it, I'd like to rebut most of what Bill Giffin had to say about Al K's list of errors he's found in Fix, Noonan and Miller. In the publishing world, it's called errata. I'm not trained as a scientist, and as such, all I can do is read others who are more knowlegable than I and assume what is printed is accurate. The purpose of peer reviews is to refine the knowlege base and to remove errors and inconsistencies when they occur. These books are essentially reference books. They serve as a kind of authority, the way a dictionary does. In so far as they contain errors, they are flawed. I for one look forward to Al's web page and appreciate the effort he's put into enumerating the errors he's come across. Al and many others on this forum have been invaluable to the improvement of my own understanding of the brewing process. As seen above, they keep me honest as well. Rather than percieving this as a personal affront, I greatly appreciate when Al, or anyone else for that matter, finds fault in my procedures or thought processes. We're all trying to make better beer, and personally, I'll take good advice anytime I can get it. Just as an aside, my background is in philosophy, and I'd like to point out that: >Perhaps Al needs to list all the errors to be "compleat" (my spell >checker rejected this word as did some of our UK friends). Perhaps >Al has to feel important. is a textbook example of an "ad hominem" argument, a logical fallacy; and that: >Al tell us about how you have set up and run a real brewery. You >know one that sells its product to the paying public. is a classic "red herring", another logical fallacy of rhetoric. TTYL, Harlan ********************************************************************* * * * Harlan Bauer ...malt does more than Milton can * * Carbondale, IL To justify God's ways to man. * * <blacksab at midwest.net> --A.E. Houseman * * * ********************************************************************* Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 04:50:00 -0500 (EST) From: Alex Santic <alex at salley.com> Subject: Bill's "Errors" Post >From: "Bill Giffin" <billgiffin at maine.com> >Subject: Errors > >>Al K sent this to me in a private email: >Fix, Noonan, and Miller are all wrong about MgSO4. I know an awful <snip> Bill, you need to absorb a few important points of netiquette. First of all, it is considered an egregious breach in all electronic forums to publicly quote someone's private e-mail. You've sent me a few things in private e-mail which were pretty stupid (which is not to imply that Al's comments were), hence so much the better that you respect this protocol. The rest of your message contained nothing substantive except an attack on Al's motives. I don't understand *your* motives in intentionally taking that private conversation public in front of thousands of people. - -- Alex Santic - alex at salley.com Silicon Alley Connections, LLC 527 Third Avenue #419 - NYC 10016 - 212-213-2666 - Fax 212-447-9107 http://www.salley.com Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 07:40:52 -0800 From: Rex Clingan <kdash1 at idt.net> Subject: What's the preferred breed of dog for homebrewing a goldings retreiver Return to table of contents
Date: 15 Feb 97 10:13:02 EST From: "David R. Burley" <103164.3202 at CompuServe.COM> Subject: Aerators, De-skunking Brewsters: Hal Davis heard that the reason folks started putting aerators on the ends of faucets is that the aeration helps remove the chlorine. Well, I have an aerator on my well water ( no chlorine) faucet to stop the splashing of the water. I suspect this is the real reason manufacturers put them on their faucets, since I doubt they worry about the chlorine levels in your water. Chlorine purging by air injection may be a side effect and it can't hurt to use this in filing up your brewing ketle. - ------------------------------------------------ AlK suggests that one can pick up a skunked beer from the cooler in unpackaged bottles next to the fluorescent lights. I agree that this is the most likely place to get it since these will have much higher ultraviolet content than incandescent lights. As a photochemist I am still very puzzled by this whole thing since iso-humulone doesn't even absorb in the visible region ( i.e. it is colorless) and the soda glass of the bottles absorbs light where isohumulone begins. Not that I don't believe in light skunking, just as a photochemist, I am not happy with the conventional explanation as I know it. Also, I was very surprized to see that AlK wrote: >Buy them, take them home, chill >both for only a few hours (a few days at 50F actually seems to reverse >the reaction) and compare their aromas. Your paranthetical comment surprized me. I have never heard that prenyl mercaptan disappears at 50F. Do you have documented information on this? Does this means we can warm our skunked beers to 50F for a few days and the skunking will go away? Does beer at 50F and above get skunked? If we buy Heineken or PU and hold it at 50F does it get better? Keep on brewin' Dave Burley Kinnelon, NJ 07405 103164.3202 at compuserve.com Voice e-mail OK Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 10:40:06 -0400 From: Christopher Tkach <tkach at tiac.net> Subject: Recipe for Irish Cream A while back someone had asked for a recipe for irish cream... well I meant to send it to them, but I've misplaced their email address...sorry for the wait. - Chris Irish Cream - ----------- 3 eggs 1 can sweet condensed milk 1 tsp. coconut extract 1 Tbs. Chocolate syrup 1 pint whipping cream 2 cups irish whiskey Mix in blender, makes a little over 1 quart. The better the irish wiskey, the better the cream...but I've made it with Seagrams and it still comes out ok. Ideally, you should let it sit in the fridge for a couple of weeks...but it tastes good just over night. Enjoy. Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 11:46:33 -0600 From: Rob Moline <brewer at kansas.net> Subject: Wheelers Porter..Part 5. Wheelers Porter/Part 5. The following article was printed in a home brewing magazine *** START OF ARTICLE 3 *** Porter is undoubtedly the most enigmatic of all old-time British beers and to completely unravel the true story of Porter would require the skill of Sherlock Holmes and the occasional use of a crystal ball. The original Porters of the early 1700s were not brewed as Porter in their own right, but were simply ordinary brown beers that had been deliberately soured; a concept difficult for modern commentators to grasp. Brown beers were made from brown malt, which is a smoked malt, smoked over a hardwood fire. Most early beers were brown beers, simply because wood was the easiest and cheapest way of firing the malt kilns. The beers would have had a predominant wood-smoke flavour as a result. Smoking was considered important because apart from imparting a very agreeable flavour it was one of the very few preservative processes available to our ancestors and helped to protect the malt during storage. Porter was simply a mixture of two brown beers; one sour and one not. An ordinary beer was stored away for a year or more until it had acquired an acidic sourness after which it was removed from store and then blended with freshly brewed beer. The sour beer was referred to as "stale" in the parlance of the time, and the freshly brewed beer was referred to as "mild". The blending was usually performed at the pub. The publican held both grades of beer and the drinker would mix "stale" and "mild" in his tankard in the proportions necessary to give him his preferred degree of acidic tang; in much the same way as modern drinkers mix "mild and bitter". It was this mixture of two beers that was Porter and not, initially at least, the base beers from which the mixture was comprised. "Entire Butt" was a variation of Porter that was blended at the brewery and supplied in a single cask. However, a blend dispensed from a single cask could not suit all palates and the practice of blending stale and mild in the pub remained the preferred method, especially in London. The major characteristics of the original porters would have been a rich smoky flavour supplied by the brown malt, and a winey acidic aftertang produced by the deliberate souring. The colour could have been anything from quite pale to a translucent murky-brown; certainly not jet-black as is generally assumed. Old-time brown malt referred to the superficial surface colour of the malt caused by the smoke condensate, and not to the colour of the interior of the malt. Unlike modern brown malt, old-time brown malt would not necessarily have coloured the beer to any great degree. Long ageing periods were required for the "stale" beer to turn acidic, or to become "pricked", to use the parlance of the time. Originally the beer was aged in ordinary casks stored away in cellars for a year or two, but as the popularity of Porter grew this became an impossible logistics problem for the brewers and tied up huge stocks of expensive casks. Whitbread, for instance, rented cellars in 54 locations around London in 1747. >From about 1740 onwards the brewers took to building huge maturation vats of anything up to 20,000 barrel (720,000 gallon) capacity. These huge wooden vessels, which resembled the old gasholders, enabled the beer to be aged more easily and in the greater volumes necessary to cope with rapidly increasing demand. Porter continued for the first 80 years of its life virtually unchanged, apart from fraudulent imitations, but by the turn of the nineteenth century Porter had made the first of its evolutionary transformations. Prior to this Porter was simply a soured brown beer made from 100 per cent brown malt, but by about 1800 the standard grist for London Porter had become equal parts of brown, amber, and pale malts. Porter now had its own independent identity, although it was still supplied in mild and stale versions. The most likely reason for this change was that pale and amber malts were becoming cheaper than brown. Pale and amber malts were kilned over coal or coke whereas brown malt was kilned over hardwood. The industrialisation of Britain provided cheap and plentiful supplies of coal and the fledgling canal network provided an efficient means to transport it. The price of hardwood, on the other hand, rose steeply because certain hardwoods, particularly oak, became protected and were reserved for the Royal Navy's ships, who were busy fighting half the world at the time. End Of Part 5 Jethro Rob Moline Little Apple Brewing Company, Manhattan, Kansas. "The More I Know About Beer, The More I Realize I Need To Know More About Beer!" Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 11:54:43 -0600 From: Rob Moline <brewer at kansas.net> Subject: Wheelers Porter...Part 6. Wheelers Porter/Part 6 An intriguing side-effect of this grist change is that the smoky character of the beer would have dropped considerably with the massive reduction in brown malt, and it is difficult to see how the brewers could have got away with such a drastic change without established customers rejecting the product. However, amber malt does have its own characteristic flavour and this might have compensated to a certain degree, and no doubt the changes were phased in gradually. Nevertheless, the change did not go unnoticed; Shannon complained in 1805 that the "genuine flavour of Porter has of late years very much declined". The early 1800s saw the introduction of black malt into Porter grists, initially by country brewers trying to cash in on the Porter phenomenon by brewing look-alikes, if not necessarily taste-alikes, but black malt gradually found its way into the grists of genuine London Porters as well. By the mid 1800s the standard London porter grist had changed yet again, marking the completion of the second phase of Porter's evolution. By 1850 Whitbread's Porter grist had become 80 per cent pale malt, 15 per cent brown malt, and 5 per cent black malt. Noteworthy by the complete absence of amber malt and a further reduction in brown malt. The trend continued; the London Porter grist given by James Herbert in his Art of Brewing of 1871 consists of 90 per cent pale malt, 5 per cent brown malt and 5 per cent black malt; showing an even further reduction in brown malt. However, there were still a number of London Porter brewers who continued to use amber malt in their grist, albeit in smaller amounts. According to my trusty computer these recipes will produce a beer of about 70 EBCs in colour; a mid-brown, somewhat lighter than a modern brown ale or darkish mild. This matches a contemporary description of the colour of Porter as being of "an inviting brunette complexion". It is difficult to determine exactly why this second recipe change took place; it is very unlikely that it was done on grounds of economy. It seems most likely that the London brewers were responding to changes in consumer taste. By 1850 the pale ale revolution was in full swing, generating a preference for dry, cleaner-tasting beers. It seems likely that consumers were demanding beers that were cleaner and more subtle on the palate and the strong flavours of amber and brown malt had probably fallen out of favour. Indeed, the smoky character of the brown malt must have been hardly perceptible in the revised recipe. The two cask system of dispensing Porter had all but disappeared by 1850 in favour of the single cask or "Entire Butt" method; indicating that the consumer was also less fussy regarding the degree of souring experienced. Genuine London Porter continued to be soured until the early part of this century, but the majority of country-brewed imitation Porters were not soured at all. In the 1870s a single-cask London Porter or Entire was soured with about 8 per cent stale beer, but this was almost certainly a good deal less than in earlier times. Whitbread demolished the last of its great porter ageing vats in 1918, indicating that they were faithfully producing the genuine "soured" article right up to the very end. Modern-day bottled Guinness is still characterised by the addition of 3 per cent of pasteurised sour beer. The prominent souring agent was probably acetic acid. Vinegar seems to complement beer, as the age-old custom of publicans supplying pickled onions, pickled eggs, and various wiggly seafood things in vinegar would seem to conform. Porter, during the brewing process and during ageing, gets a fair amount of access to air. The oxidation of alcohol into acetic acid is a slow process, which is why stale porter was aged in huge vats for a year or more. A variety of yeast strains were also involved. It is apparent from the literature that old-time brewers, that when storing ale away for long periods they often experienced several "secondary" fermentations in cask. After the ale had been cellared for several months, the beer would suddenly become active again and the brewer would be forced to vent the casks and wait for activity to subside before bunging them down again. Several months later, off they would go again. Pale ale brewers cursed when this happened because acidity was the inevitable result. Porter brewers of course, wanted it. Strains like bretanomyces were responsible for these "frets" to use old-time brewerspeak. [ Sorry, the end of this got corrupted along the way ] *** END OF ARTICLE 3 **** End of Part 6 Jethro Rob Moline Little Apple Brewing Company, Manhattan, Kansas. "The More I Know About Beer, The More I Realize I Need To Know More About Beer!" Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 14:11:48 -0500 (EST) From: Tim Plummer <plummer at brick.purchase.edu> Subject: Secondary fermentation in bottles? I believe this question was recently asked, but I missed any responses if they were posted to HBD. In the small batches involved in homebrewing (in my case, 5 gallons), can secondary fermentation just take place in the bottle? What is different about keeping the beer in a secondary fermenter versus lagering in a bottle, besides the addition of priming sugar? TIA for helping this newbie understand. - --Tim Plummer Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 14:24:20 -0500 (EST) From: Tim Plummer <plummer at brick.purchase.edu> Subject: newbie question - cloudy Altbier! My second batch ever, an attempt at an Alt, is not clearing as I would have hoped. I am wondering what the possible reasons are. Here is the information that I think might be relevant. I boiled the wort for an hour, cooled in my bathtub full of icewater, then added it to cool water in my fermenter. I pitched yeast at 62F, a little cool, I think, and it took the yeast (Wyeast#1007) a good three days to get rolling. After two weeks in the primary, I bottled it, where it has been conditioning for 2 weeks at 50-55F. I have had two bottles, one each at one week intervals. It seems to be making no progress as far as clearing. It is quite tasty, so I don't think it's contaminated. I notice that Wyeast #1007 is listed as having "low" flocculation. Does this pertain to clearing? Did I leave it in the primary too long? Should I have siphoned out of the brewpot into the primary? Am I just being impatient? The important part is that it tastes pleasant, I know, but this is a learning process, and any help towards my understanding about beer is greatly appreciated IA. -Tim Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 97 14:35:02 EST From: dbrigham at nsf.gov Subject: Cooper's Sparkling Ale - yeast/recipe? I remember a few months back a discussion in the HBD about Cooper's ales and yeast - never had any until recently. I just *love* the Sparkling Ale - it is cloudy and has a neat 'bite/tang' to the flavor, almost reminiscent of the uniqueness of the Weizen style. Can I assume (if this beer is normal and did not get funky during shipping) that this is mostly due to the yeast? Does anyone have any extract based recipes for a similar ale? Is Cooper's dry yeast available at US homebrew stores the same yeast? Can the yeast in the bottle be cultured and is it the fermentation yeast or a different strain just used for bottle conditioning? Private email response is best for now and I can summarize and repost to the HBD - Thanx!!! Dana Brigham dbrigham at nsf.gov Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 97 21:38:35 UT From: "Raymond Estrella" <ray-estrella at msn.com> Subject: mash amounts, blonde ale Tim writes, >The other question is this, I've only got a 4 gallon kettle for which >to mash in, and I've got a 5 gal zapap style lauter tun. How much grain can >I reasonable expect to mash? >My SO would like a >blonde ale for her next batch, and I'm not sure how to go about it? A >recipe would be nice, but if no one has one, style guidelines would be the >next best thing. Tim, you can get about 9.5 lb. of grain in a thick mash in your 4 gal. pot, and still be able to carefully stir while raising temp, adding gypsum, etc. You should be able to get around 12.5 lb. of grain in a thick mash in your 5 gal. lauter- tun. As far as a Blonde Ale goes, I made one for our Christmas party this year for those friends and neighbors that are afraid to try anything darker than Bud. We also had 5 kinds of store-bought beer ranging from Miller lite to Pete's Wicked. (We had 4 kegs of "good" stuff too) To our surprise not one bottle of commercial beer was opened. But the wimp-beer drinkers raved about the Blond Ale. So here you go, (I modified the recipe to work with your 4 gal mash kettle) US 2 row 8 lb Crystal 10 .5 lb Wheat malt .5 lb Light LME 3.3 lb Eroica hops .75 oz (10 AAU) 40 min. Cascade hops 1 oz (4.1 AAU) 20 min. Yeast Labs Canadian Ale Yeast I use a 3 step infusion mash for it. I hope this helps, Ray Estrella Cottage Grove MN ray-estrella at msn.com *******Never relax, constantly worry, have a better homebrew.******* Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 15 Feb 1997 18:54:58 -0500 (EST) From: Alex Santic <alex at salley.com> Subject: RE: No sparge brew >From: "Mercer, David" <dmercer at path-seattle-01.path.org> > >Now I'm curious. Is there a 'correct' method for no sparge brewing? >Mike's seems more to me like a 'quick sparge' than a 'no sparge'. But my >intuitively arrived at method of just draining the wort produced less >efficiency than a simple 4/3 adjustment of the grain bill would have >predicted (I bumped a 12# recipe that in my system usually produces a >1.064 wort, up to 16#, but came out 8 points short (i.e. 1.054). Mike's >was more efficient than he expected. How are others out there who have >tried this doing it? More intricate details of methodology were actually discussed here a few months ago. There is no "correct" method established that I know of. In George Fix's system, he apparently gets the expected results by simply adjusting the grain bill up by one third, and taking the first runnings. Others will get significantly different results because of certain variables in their own brewing systems. The closest I have come to a generally applicable principle is to adapt the concept of parti-gyle brewing. The idea is to collect about 1/2 of the usual volume of wort to get 2/3 of the extract. This makes the numbers come out about right. You can do this with a partial sparge, but my preferred method is to adjust the mash thickness so that recirculating and draining the first runnings will give you about the right amount of wort without sparging. Don't forget to account for absorption by the grain when calculating the amount of water for the mash. I know that varying the mash thickness will also affect variables such as fermentability and enzyme stability, and depending on your usual system it may result in a water/grist ratio rather different than what you're used to. I don't find these factors, in practice, to be worth hassling over. It will work, and you'll have a rather predictable procedure. You might need to tweak it slightly after a few run-throughs, but you'll probably come much closer right off the bat than you did last time. Also make sure that you're using the correct extract potentials for the various grains in your grist (the extensive table in Papzian's second book is rather useful for this). If, for example, you were to assume the same extract potential for pale malt and chocolate malt, this procedure might magnify the error. Hope this helps. - -- Alex Santic - alex at salley.com Silicon Alley Connections, LLC 527 Third Avenue #419 - NYC 10016 - 212-213-2666 - Fax 212-447-9107 http://www.salley.com Return to table of contents