HOMEBREW Digest #2932 Wed 20 January 1999

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		Digest Janitor: janitor@hbd.org
		Many thanks to the Observer & Eccentric Newspapers of 
		Livonia, Michigan for sponsoring the Homebrew Digest.
				URL: http://www.oeonline.com

  Re: Wyeast #1968 (ThomasM923)
  Purity of Dry v's Liquid Yeasts (David Lamotte)
  homebrewers help and advice(Bob Fesmire) (DGofus)
  Aeration questions (Bob Fesmire) (DGofus)
  Testing we shall do... ("Lutzen, Karl F.")
  Cutting Out Keg Tops (Mark_Ohrstrom/Humphrey_Products)
  Beer Swap! (Mark_Ohrstrom/Humphrey_Products)
  Humble questions (Jeremy B. Pugh)
  Nitrogen Minikeg Taps (Jeff Hall)
  Whole Hops or Pellets. (Chad Simkin)
  foam terminology (David Whitman)
  Wyeast Swedish Ale (1947) Questions (Christopher Peterson)
  Headspace and carbonation (Al Korzonas)
  Yeast Starters/Good Head (Bill Jankowski)
  Bitter and Alt (Bill Jankowski)
  Corn Syrup ("Val J. Lipscomb")
  Wyeast 1968 (John Wilkinson)
  Wyeast 1968 ("Bridges, Scott")
  Boil overs ("J. Matthew Saunders")
  Rasberry Wheat recipe? (Brian Morgan)
  Grades of CO2 ("John & Diane O'Hare")
  Re: St. Pat's Response (Doug Roberts)
  Re: Sourdough ("Brian Dixon")
  Diacetyl Rest info needed (Sean Murphy)
  Incorporating Coffee in a stout (Sean Murphy)
  Yeast and Barley Wine (Sean Murphy)
  Re: Hydrogen beer; St. Pat's bitching ("Brian Dixon")
  DEFINITION OF A CFU (Cat Tambling & Jim Buttitta)
  CFU's/ NG? (Eric.Fouch)
  Bacteria Purity Standards (Fran Hoey)
  Yeast Starters---One Flavor/Odor not mentioned ("Peter J. Calinski")
  LiqBred ("Philip J Wilcox")
  He's baaaaack ! ("Stephen Alexander")

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 03:08:25 EST From: ThomasM923 at aol.com Subject: Re: Wyeast #1968 John Herman wrote: "I had used Wyeast #1968 on three occasions for an ESB. I also emailed Wyeast about the need to rousing. They said you don't need to, but that your FG should be a couple of points higher than usual." I used this yeast strain once for a porter, and liked the results. The starting gravity was 1.056 and it finished at 1.019 (starch rest at 155-150 for 1 hour). I wanted some residual sweetness without relying on crystal malts, and #1968 delivered. As I recall, I roused the yeast once after the fermentation had slowed down. This yeast finished very quickly. I used oxygen for the first time with this batch, so that had something to do with it. "My advice is that, unless you properly aerate, don't use this yeast." - ---I agree. "I was not happy with the results. I found the ale to be too sweet." - ---If you want some malty sweetness in a particular batch, I feel that #1968 is a good choice. I found that a terminal gravity of 1.019 really wasn't that sweet. Thomas Murray Maplewood, NJ John Herman Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 21:46:36 +1100 From: David Lamotte <lamotted at ozemail.com.au> Subject: Purity of Dry v's Liquid Yeasts Matt Comstock posts an interesting discussion with Lallemand concerning dry yeast in HBD #2929. He was told ... "The standard for the presents of wild yeast by my company is less than 1 wild yeast per 2,000,000 beer yeast cells or less than 0.000005 %. That is not perfect but mighty close to it. " And further asked ... "Do you have any idea for those of liquid yeast manufacturers? Is there a bacteria standard as well, or is that simply: none." I would not have a clue, but I did remember reading some specs of a leading liquid yeast producer on the web. I won't give any names but you can find the details at http://www.wyeastlab.com <Grin> The Purity Standards are listed as: Wild Yeast and Mold ; Negative in 10 ml suspension Bacteria ; < 1 cfu / ml Yeast Mutants; None detected So there it is - all our questions answered. Now if we only knew what '< 1cfu / ml' meant ... anyone got any ideas. Thanks David Lamotte Brewing Down Under in Newcastle, N.S.W. Australia Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 06:43:45 EST From: DGofus at aol.com Subject: homebrewers help and advice(Bob Fesmire) I would like to thank the collective publicly for all the help and advice I have received any time that I have asked a question, or posed a problem. I recently asked which would work better for my system, a false bottom or copper manifold. I got tons of helpful info. I used the manifold for the first time this weekend and it worked great! My false bottom got retired to my brew kettle to filter out hops and trub, again worked great!!!!!!. I also asked about my converted kegs and the problems with moving liquids and keeping temps in line. Again, you guys have come thru and gave excellent advice. Thanks to all who has helped this brewer go from extract to all grain, and love every minute(well, almost every minute) of it. Bob Fesmire Madman Brewery Pottstown, PA Dgofus at aol.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 06:50:53 EST From: DGofus at aol.com Subject: Aeration questions (Bob Fesmire) I am thinking about purchasing a aeration system. I see advertised the oxygen tanks with diffuser. I believe that it is one more step to improving my beer. I guess that there are all different brands, so any advice would be appreciated. The one that I am leaning toward is the Oxynator by liquid bread. Thanks in advance. Bob Fesmire Madman Brewery Pottstown, PA Dgofus at aol.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 14:55:09 -0600 From: "Lutzen, Karl F." <kfl at umr.edu> Subject: Testing we shall do... as the subject says, a test if the posting works... Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 16:05:06 -0500 From: Mark_Ohrstrom/Humphrey_Products at humphreypc.com Subject: Cutting Out Keg Tops Harold Dowda asks: > Also, other than using a torch (I may still be able to use one, > not likely) is there a reasonably efficient way to cut the tops > off the kegs? Which system (gas etc) is Easiest to use and > still produce an acceptable job? Thanks. The best way that I have found requires access to a decent-sized air compressor (usually more common 'round the 'hood than a plasma cutter.) Get yourself an air-driven muffler cut-off tool (basically, a small abrasive saw) for $15-20, two or three replacement abrasive discs per keg, a worm-gear hose clamp large enough for the body of the air tool, and a wire coat hanger. Cut a piece of coat hanger long enough to loop around the Sankey valve in the center of the keg, and secure the ends of the loop to the cut-off tool with the hose clamp. Adjust the swing of the cutter to the desired diameter of the opening (be careful that the disc doesn't contact the rim of the keg -- a 12inch opening is usually OK, and matching lids are available at Target for $10) and tighten the clamp (gently!, if your tool has a plastic body). You may have to remove (GASP!) the clear plastic safety-shield to get the right radius -- put it BACK on when you're done). Wearing safety glasses (MINIMALLY), or preferably, a full face shield, AND hearing protection, begin a very shallow cut while swinging the tool around the Sankey valve. Be careful NOT to tangle your feet in the air hose! Continue to cut deeper and deeper in repeated passes. As you begin to break through the top of the keg leave a "spider" of metal to support the keg top until you're ready for the final pass. Assuming you're not standing next to the compressor you can use water to cool the cut as you go (stainless gets harder as it heats up). Change the cutting disc as necessary. After the top is cut out, remove the SHARP burr around the opening with a die grinder, or a hand-held stone. Check your progress with a wad of paper towel, NOT your finger! If you do use your finger, be sure to have some salt handy to make the memory *really* vivid! This method is relatively fast, doesn't require exotic equipment (an air compressor is WAY useful around the house <snort>!) and leaves a MUCH better finish than I've ever seen done by an amateur with either a Sawzall or a torch. Standard disclaimer: If you maim yourself, or by-standers, by following these instructions to the letter, don't EVEN be thinking of getting a lawyer to sue me! Act like a thinking person. Mark (wonderin' how they cut off the tops of wooden barrels, back in the early days of homebrewing) in Kalamazoo Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 16:05:12 -0500 From: Mark_Ohrstrom/Humphrey_Products at humphreypc.com Subject: Beer Swap! Michael Josephson asks: > ... I bought a six-pack of their Black Chocolate Stout, > which is, IMHO, a world class beer. Now I'm down to my > last bottle and beginning to tremble at the thought of > not having anymore. Are there any NY brewers out there > who would be willing to ship me a case? In exchange for > a similar favor?...some homebrew? ... I too, am interested in swapping the output of local (quality) micros beyond their normal ("legal") distribution. I have access to Bell's (Kalamazoo BC), Roffey's, Arcadia, New Holland, Atwater Block, Robert Thomas and other Michigan micros. I too, would like to try some of the Brooklyn Black Chocolate Stout, Victory Hop Devil and other killer brews. Let me know what you've got, and what you want! Mark in Kalamazoo Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 11:18:52 -0700 From: jpugh at hjnews.com (Jeremy B. Pugh) Subject: Humble questions Hello all, I have been quietly reading the digest for some time and while I am facinated with the advanced brewing techniques I am still getting the basics down. You have to learn to crawl...I was hopping (grin) that some kind soul could answer a few basic questions that have been plaguing me in my malt extract brewing procedures.They may seem obvious to most of you but again with the crawling and walking thing. Also perhaps someone could reccommend a more basic mailing list suited for beginner's like me. 1. I have been losing a great deal of my wort during the boil (at least a gallon). My last batch, I used three gallons of water to 6 lbs of light malt. I steeped 1 lb of crystal malt to the boiling point, removed, added my malt, and hops and boiled for 60 min I don't have a large boiler and i have a boil over problem when I cover the pot. When I reduce my heat, I don't get a rolling boil. Is good or bad? Should I let the wort reduce to make it more concentrated or am I just evaporating all the yummy goodness into the air? 2. I have been using grain bags during the boil to avoid sparging. I thought this was a good idea for looseleaf hops as well. However, I noticed a lot of sediment in my carboy this go around. Should I use a strainer to gather up the looseleaf hops? Note: I brew solo so I am not sure how to practically accomplish this. 3. Lager yeast. I am attempting a steamesque beer and I purchased a wyeast smak-pak of california lager yeast from my local brewer. He advised me that I didn't really need to wait for the incubation period to commence, i.e. the packet to swell, and that I could just pitch and go. I smacked the pack about 48 hours before I brewed and pitched at 66 degrees, the packet had not swelled at all. I am still expectanlty waiting for signs of life. It has been a full 24-hrs and then some. Should I aerate some more, pitch more yeast, or just settle down and be patient? Thanks in advance. Feel free to send me private e-mails so as not to bother advanced digest readers. Jeremy B. Pugh jpugh at hjnews.com "Never argue with someone who buys ink by the barrel." -- Mark Twain Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 09:49:03 -0800 From: Jeff Hall <hallj at targen.com> Subject: Nitrogen Minikeg Taps Has anyone tried using 'whip-its' Nitrous Oxide cartridges designed for making whipped cream to tap a 5 liter minikeg? I'm thinking of trying it on minikeg of stout ('bottle' conditioned). Would NO2 gas work in place of pure Nitrogen gas? Thanks, Jeff Hall Seattle, WA Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 14:33:03 -0500 From: Chad.Simkin at nextel.com (Chad Simkin) Subject: Whole Hops or Pellets. Hi, I just recently started to read the HBD. I am somewhat a new brewer but I have done my reading. I just recently made a batch and I decided to use whole hops instead of pellets. It seems like I got a stronger smell and taste from the whole hops compared to the pellets. Can anybody comment on this. In a recipe can you sub. 1oz.pellet for 1oz.whole. Just curious thanks. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 08:55:24 -0500 From: David Whitman <dwhitman at rohmhaas.com> Subject: foam terminology Dan Listerman asks if there's a scientific term for the collapse of foams. I know a fair amount about the physical chemistry of foams and I am not aware of a single special term used for this phenomenon. Researchers in the area tend to talk about the inverse effect - foam stability. For disappearance of foams, I've seen papers using the phrases "foam collapse", "foam decay", "foam breaking", "foam destabilization" and "foam rupture". If you refer to the process as "collapse", you'll be understood and as scientific as anything I've seen. An excellent review of foam chemistry that I often refer back to when thinking about foams and foam collapse is: R.J. Pugh, "Foaming, foam films, antifoaming and defoaming", Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, v64, pp 67-142 (1996). Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 14:48:16 -0500 From: Christopher Peterson <peterscc at email.uc.edu> Subject: Wyeast Swedish Ale (1947) Questions Beer Freaks: I aquired Wyeast 1947 Swedish ale for nearly free recently. I must admit, its obscurity had as much to do with its purchase as its price. All I've got to go on is that Wyeast says it gives a floral nose and malty profile yada yada yada. Questions: Anyone have some input on Swedish Ales? I for one no nothing of Swedish ales. Anyone use this yeast, and if so, for what styles? Any and all information welcome, privately or through HBD. TIA. Christopher Peterson peterscc at email.uc.edu Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 16:09:00 -0600 (CST) From: Al Korzonas <korz at xnet.com> Subject: Headspace and carbonation Again, a long-delayed comment... Dave writes, quoting an article from breworld: >"A bottom fermenting lager yeast cultured up in a 30-litre keg was >then pitched in to the beer immediately prior to racking on the >bottling line. The pitch rate desired was 0.5 million cells per ml. >No oxygenation was given to the beer at this stage but our German >colleagues in association with Michael Hoeck calculated that >sufficient air in neck would provide the yeast with the oxygen >required. This meant good control was required during packaging, as >over-filling here would have a significant effect on the final >carbonation level achieved in bottle. The fermentation in the bottle >would be expected to increase the carbon dioxide level from 0.5vols >to 3.5vols." > >This seems a bit counter-intuitive to me. I thought that it has been >pretty much universally accepted that priming sugar or wort added at >bottling time was rapidly fermented, and that little if any >respiration takes place, or for that matter is desirable. If there's >any truth to this idea, it would explain the positive correlation >between CO2 levels and bottle headspace that has been reported by >several on the digest and observed by myself also. On the other >hand, since the article is talking about the formulation of a >Bavarian Weiss, maybe a larger than usual amount of yeast growth in >the bottle is considered desirable and contributes positively to the >overall profile. I don't believe the article is correct regarding this association. I was one of the people who researched this phenomenon and can vouch for the fact that too little headspace does indeed decrease carbonation. The reason I don't think it is correct is quite simply because oxygen is not required for fermentation. A year or two ago, another HBD'er (sorry, buried deep in my disk somewhere) and I discussed the thought that perhaps it was due to the fact that during respiration (yes, indeed, respiration) more CO2 is produced than during fermentation. However, we did some quick calculations and determined that the priming sugar was enough to induce the Crabtree Effect (also called reverse catabolism, I believe) which *suppresses* respiration and causes 90+% of the oxygen to be used for cellular activity other than respiration. Therefore, for all intents and purposes, brewers yeast *don't respire*. Actually, it would not be difficult to test the article's assertion... three bottles: 1. filled normally, 2. high fill - taking care to introduce little or no oxygen, and 3. high fill - aerate the heck out of the beer. My gut feeling says there is some *other* factor (not oxygen in the headspace) that causes this phenomenon. Al. Al Korzonas, Palos Hills, IL korz at brewinfo.com http://www.brewinfo.com/brewinfo/ Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 17:06:19 -0500 From: Bill Jankowski <wjankowski at snet.net> Subject: Yeast Starters/Good Head As a service to my fellow HBD'ers, I'd like to finish out the starter thread that I'd started a couple of days ago. Much thanks is necessary to Ted Mc Irvine, Nathan Kanous, George De Piro, Scott Murman, and Jack Horzempa for their quick responses to my query. In summary, one should always use starters when using liquid (Wyeast) yeast. The popular "smack packs" only contain about 50 mL of yeast when fresh, which the directions on the pack say should be stepped up to at least 12 oz of wort prior to pitching. I'd screwed up by pitching a smack pack to 1/2 gal (roughly 2000 mL) of wort, or about 4X as much as I should have. In the future, my procedure will be as follows: 1. "Smack" the pack. 2. Wait 12-24 hours until pack is firm, ~1 inch thick. 3. Pitch smack pack to 12 oz of wort (~1/2 cup DME) 4. Wait 24-48 hours until fermentation is complete. 5. Repitch 12 oz starter to 1/2 gal of wort. 6. Wait 24-48 hours until 1/2 gal starter is at high kareusen. 7. Brew. 8. Pitch the whole damn starter to the beer. Also as a follow up, the starter kicked off about 48 hours after I'd pitched the smack pack to the 1/2 gal of wort, and was the prettiest white head that I'd ever seen. Smelled fine, no floaties. Pitched it to my new bitter this afternoon. As a future item for discussion, I like head! In an effort at aiding head production, I make my starters from half light DME, and the other half wheat DME. When I prime the beer, I do it using 1 1/4 cup of wheat DME. Am I helping, hurting, or barking at the moon? Thanks, Bill Jankowski Texan In Exile Colchester, CT Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 17:36:38 -0500 From: Bill Jankowski <wjankowski at snet.net> Subject: Bitter and Alt Hope ya'll enjoy these. I'm still waiting to see how they turn out. The alt's in bottles, and the bitter's using the aforementioned starter, should be done in about a month. Bitter Junior Naval Officer 8 Lbs Maris Otter 0.5 lbs 20 L crystal 0.5 lbs malted wheat 3 oz Cascade 1 oz Fuggles Wyeast American Ale Mash in at 127F with 2.25 gal at 135F for 30 Min. Raise to 154 with 1.125 gal boiling water for 1 hour. Sparge with 4.5 gal 175F. 90 min boil. With 60 min left, add 1 oz Cascade. With 30 min left, add 1 oz Cascade. With 2 min left, add 1 oz Cascade. Cool, pitch yeast. Ferment ~60F for 1 week. Transfer to secondary, dry hop 1 oz Fuggles. Bottle using 1 1/4 cup light DME in bottles with 2 stripes on the bottom. Alt in the Family 8 Lbs Pilsner Malt 4 Oz Vienna 1 Oz Chocolate 1 Oz Black Patent 7 Oz Munich 2 Oz Saaz Hops 1 Oz Hallertauer Wyeast California Lager Mash in with 1.5 gal 120F water for 30 Min. Add water chemicals to mash in water. Raise to 145F for 20 min by adding 1 Gal Boiling water. Raise to 155F for 20 min by adding 0.5 Gal Boiling water. Sparge with 175F water to collect 7 Gal. Boil for 90 min. With 45 min left, add 1 Oz Hallertauer. With 10 min left, add 1 Oz Saaz. At end of Boil, add 1 Oz Saaz Transfer 6 Gal to primary. Pitch yeast and ferment at 55F for 2 weeks. Lager at ambient 35F for 1 week. Bottle with 1 3/4 cup wheat DME. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 16:59:30 -0600 (CST) From: "Val J. Lipscomb" <valjay at NetXpress.com> Subject: Corn Syrup Greetings Great Gurus, I came across a hybrid recipe for Old Peculier on the UK-HBD that calls for ,among a lot of other stuff,"Maltose(maize)Syrup". Seems like a long defunct HB shop here had something called "Brewers Corn Syrup". Does anyone (come on HB shop owners) know of a US source for it-in small quantities?? TIA, Val Lipscomb-brewing in Sunny San Antonio (it was 83F yesterday) Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 17:15:45 -0600 From: John.Wilkinson at aud.alcatel.com (John Wilkinson) Subject: Wyeast 1968 Mark Swenson asked in HBD #2929 about Wyeast 1968 and whether rousing was necessary due to its flocculent nature. I have used 1968 more than any other yeast and while it is highly flocculent I find that if aerated well it doesn't need rousing. When I first started using it I sometimes had attenuation problems but traced it (thanks to HBD) to inadequate aeration. Since I have been aerating adequately I have had no problems. I think adequate aeration is preferable to rousing in any case. I use O2 now but had good results before by pouring the wort between sanitized buckets to aerate. By the way, I think good aeration is a good idea with any yeast. It just seems to be a bit more critical with 1968. Good yeast, though. John Wilkinson - Grapevine, Texas - John.Wilkinson at aud.alcatel.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 08:30:28 -0500 From: "Bridges, Scott" <ScottBridges at sc.slr.com> Subject: Wyeast 1968 Mark writes: >I have searched the archive for 1968 to no avail. (BTW, this surprises me. >I'd welcome some search hints.) > >I intend to use Wyeast 1968 for an ordin'ry next weekend. I've heard that >it is very flocculent and requires rousting during primary. Is this true? >If so, what is a rousting plan that provides satisfactory results? Hi, Mark. Great choice of yeast. This is one of my favorites, and is very good in bitters. I would like to burst your Momily, though. I have also heard this same comment about 1968, and it seems to get repeated very often. In my experience, I have never had any difficulty in getting it to ferment out. I've used it many times, and I would say that with adequate pitching rate and aeration, you should have no problems. Good luck. Scott Brewing in Columbia, SC. Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 18:22:15 -0500 From: "J. Matthew Saunders" <saunderm at vt.edu> Subject: Boil overs Collective, My last three brew sessions, I've been using a little widget my wife got for me to control boiling. To my astonishment (I was pretty skeptical, the thing looks a bit like a tin can lid), I've been able to leave the pot and do other things rather than worry if there was going to be a big mess all over the stove. Once again, last night I was able to rack beer in one room, while boiling in another and even catch a bit of TV. I think it was $2.50 plus tax and shipping. If any of you want details, send me an email. Cheers! Matthew. =========================================================== The Arts in Technology--Creative Consulting and Contracting J. Matthew Saunders (540)951-3090 saunderm at vt.edu http://www.dogstar.org "We have to work in the theatre of our own time, with the tools of our own time" --Robert Edmond Jones =========================================================== Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 15:36:59 -0800 (PST) From: Brian Morgan <bkm_42 at yahoo.com> Subject: Rasberry Wheat recipe? Hi - I'm still a beginner (3 batches of IPA under my belt...), but want to try a rasberry wheat beer (for my wife). I haven't been able to find any extract recipes - any suggestions? Thanks! Brian Morgan bkm_42 at yahoo.com _________________________________________________________ DO YOU YAHOO!? Get your free at yahoo.com address at http://mail.yahoo.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 20:03:33 -0500 From: "John & Diane O'Hare" <johare at groupz.net> Subject: Grades of CO2 I've recently acquired a corny keg set-up, minus the CO2. For whatever reason, my local welding and fire extinguisher shops do not wish to fill my 5lb. cylinder and the nearest place that advertises is about 40 miles away. There is however a paintball supply shop in town. The owner says he can fill cylinders but doesn't have any specifics on the CO2. I've read that certain small cartridges for BB guns, etc. have oil and are marked "Not for Human Consumption" Does anyone know if this applies to the bulk CO2 for paintball guns as well? Private E-Mail is fine. Thanks, John, Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 18:54:41 -0700 From: Doug Roberts <gertchie at earthlink.net> Subject: Re: St. Pat's Response >>>>> "don" == don oconnor <oconnor at ccwf.cc.utexas.edu> writes: don> Since I use netscape mail I sent this thru my husband. Ouch! - --Doug Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 21:43:55 PST From: "Brian Dixon" <briandixon at hotmail.com> Subject: Re: Sourdough >>"RANDY ERICKSON" <RANDYE at MID.ORG> wrote: >> >>As a follow-up to Jeff Renner's post last week about the >>rec.food.sourdough newsgroup and FAQs: >> >>It appears that the HBD's own Brian Dixon is the author of the >>sourdough starter FAQ. You can see it at: >>ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by->>group/news.answers/food/sourdough/starters > >This is a set of Q&As. I haven't had time to read it, but a far more >complete FAQ is is compiled by Darrell Greenwood at: > >http://www.nyx.net/~dgreenw/sourdoughfaqs.html > >There were many contributors to this, including your's truly. I >think >Brian's may be a part of it, too. > >Jeff Oh man, do you guys bring back memories! That FAQ that I wrote slightly embarrasses me now. I've learn SO much more about yeast since then, and believe that I now understand much more about what is happening as a newly started sourdough starter goes through it's birthpains on the way to a good robust starter. BUT, even though I've promised now for years, I've never rewritten the FAQ! The info in the FAQ was based on empirical experience and observations. I've started many starters from scratch and always felt disappointed when others gave up, or 'cheated' by adding commercial yeast to their bread recipes, so I wrote the FAQ. Oh well, thanks for the trip down memory lane ... I really will re-write the FAQ one of these days. And Jeff, I always wondered if you were the same guy as the one in rec.food.sourdough or not. Remember "Sourdough Dave" Adams? Whatever happened to him. Last I heard, he was working at Cray Computers (or Cray Research), and then he disappeared ... figured he retired or something, but you'd of thought that he'd stay in contact, eh? Brian PS: Sorry for being off topic. But just so's this is a beer brewing post, remember to never feed your sourdough within a few days to a week of brewing unless you want Lacto Bacillus in your beer. Ask my brother about the very first beer he brewed ... on the day he was feeding his sourdough starter. Mmmmmm, sour beer! For those p-lambic brewers in the crowd, consider feeding your starter on the same day you brew, and fan the gas off the starter into your fermenter! <g> ______________________________________________________ Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 22:51:23 -0800 From: Sean Murphy <smurphy at sdcoe.k12.ca.us> Subject: Diacetyl Rest info needed Hi there, I'm planning on brewing a Pale Lager in the Pils / Export style in the few weeks and I would like to do a diacetyl rest but am not sure of the exact time to do the rest. Miller's Homebrewing guide recommends starting the rest when the wort is 2/3ds of the way through it's fermentation. This much I understand, but do I conduct the rest in my primary fermenter and transfer after the rest, or should I transfer at the end of primary, into secondary and then do the diacetyl rest in the secondary? Any info would be greatly appreciated. Sean in San Diego Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 22:57:17 -0800 From: Sean Murphy <smurphy at sdcoe.k12.ca.us> Subject: Incorporating Coffee in a stout Howdy, I brewed a batch of Stout on 1/1/99 O.G. 1.047 and transferred it a little more than a week ago when active frementation had ceased at 1.010. It's been tucked away in seconday ever since, but I've contemplated making 5 out of the 10 gallons into a coffee stout. I do not have any coffee extract or flavoring to add except what I can brew in my own coffee maker. Any advice on how to incorporate coffee flavor into this batch? Should I put it in in the secondary or just prior to bottling? How mych coffee would be a safe jumping off point for a five gallon batch? Should I brew a pot and cool it before adding it to my batch or am I just asking for an infection? Thanks Sean in San Diego Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 23:03:35 -0800 From: Sean Murphy <smurphy at sdcoe.k12.ca.us> Subject: Yeast and Barley Wine Hi there, I'm planning on brewing a Barley Wine to ring in the end of the millenium. I've been re-pitching White Labs American Ale yeast for my last few batches and am wondering if a healthy 1/2 gallon starter will do the trick? Will I need to repitch more yeast at some point in mid fermentation to really bring down the gravity? Should I rouse the yeast and if so when should I do this? I been told to use Champagne yeast, but am not sure if this will have any negative effects on flavor. If I was to use champagne yeast when should I do this and in what stage of fermentation? Any suggestions / advice would ge breat Sean in San Diego Return to table of contents
Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 22:08:03 PST From: "Brian Dixon" <briandixon at hotmail.com> Subject: Re: Hydrogen beer; St. Pat's bitching >Subject: Hydrogen beer; St. Pat's bitching > [snip] >The hydrogen beer story is a brand-spanking-new urban legend that has >traveled an amazing number of miles in the short time it's been >circulating. One thing that people forget when reading this is that >hydrogen is incredibly flammable (anyone remember the Hindenburg?) >Also, the flame is invisible, defeating the whole purpose of lighting >the hydrogen beer belch on fire for all to see and marvel at. > Minor point of correction, and a fun trick: Hydrogen does impart quit a good flash of flame when it goes off. When I was a kid, I used to make hydrogen by putting lye (sodium hydroxide) and water in the big glass coke bottles (can't buy them anymore), mixing it well, then dropping crinkled sheets of aluminum foil in. You do this and then snap a balloon on the top of the bottle and watch it inflate. We'd then tie the balloons on a string and light them with a match tied to a stick (gotta keep your face back ya know!). Man! They'd make a big boom! We took pictures at night with the flash too. I might even still have a few (with artistically 'shocked' faces for the camera of course). It was a lot of fun. But anyway, yes we did get quite a lot of flame and light out of the hydrogen. My junior high chemistry teacher is responsible for teaching us this trick ... nice guy! Brian PS: Don't try this with the new plastic coke bottles. The lye/water/aluminum mixture is quite exothermic. The water often reaches a full boil, and more than one _glass_ bottle broke while performing this experiment. The new plastic ones would probably melt. And the lye mixture is nasty stuff that you don't want splashing on or around you (or in your eyes!) ______________________________________________________ Get Your Private, Free Email at http://www.hotmail.com Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 12:54:17 GMT From: mugwert at ime.net (Cat Tambling & Jim Buttitta) Subject: DEFINITION OF A CFU On Tue, 19 Jan 1999 00:23:40 -0500, you wrote: > David Lamotte <lamotted at ozemail.com.au> wrote: >Subject: Purity of Dry v's Liquid Yeasts > >The Purity Standards are listed as: > Wild Yeast and Mold ; Negative in 10 ml suspension > Bacteria ; < 1 cfu / ml > Yeast Mutants; None detected > >So there it is - all our questions answered. Now if we only knew what >'< 1cfu / ml' meant ... anyone got any ideas. > A cfu is a colony forming unit. When you properly streak out a plate each bug (bacteria or yeast) will grow and divide to form a colony. So a cfu is one viable bacteria or yeast cell. Jim Buttitta mugwert at ime.net Return to table of contents
Date: 19 Jan 1999 08:38:54 -0500 From: Eric.Fouch at steelcase.com Subject: CFU's/ NG? HBD- Dave asks: So there it is - all our questions answered. Now if we only knew what '< 1cfu / ml' meant ... anyone got any ideas. 1cfu / ml means One Colony Forming Unit per Milliliter Now a question or two of my own- I'm currently running a natural gas line to the garage. I'll T off the NG stub behind the oven, and run some black iron pipe through the garage wall. I'll put a ball valve shut off in the garage. My question is the best (safest, cheapest, easiest) way to run the gas to a 30K burner I scabbed out of an old water heater? I got a flexible gas line, like the ones used for appliances, but I have no way to connect to the 3/8 reverse flare fittings on the burner to the 1/2 pipe threads, unless I buy an $80 water heater regulator. New water heaters only cost $120! Then I had a thought- Why can't I terminate the ball valve with a hose barb, and use that tan rubber gas hose like the stuff we used in college chem lab? We currently have it in our lab here at work, to. It is made for NG, very flexible, and I could disconnect it and store it in the basement when not in use. Also, since NG is low pressure, low flow, I should be able to get some flame control from the ball valve shut-off, right? I mean, for the most part, I'll want to go full bore anyway, boiling 7-10 gallons at 30K BTU, right? Thanks Eric Fouch Bent Dick YoctoBrewery Kentwood, MI Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 09:56:32 -0500 From: Fran Hoey <FJHoey at TigheBond.com> Subject: Bacteria Purity Standards In Homebrew Digest #2932 (January 19, 1999), David Lamotte inquires, "Now if we only knew what '< 1cfu / ml' meant ... anyone got any ideas." "cfu/ml" = colony-forming units per milliliter Fran Hoey Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 09:46:17 -0500 From: "Peter J. Calinski" <PCalinski at iname.com> Subject: Yeast Starters---One Flavor/Odor not mentioned In HBD #2930 George De Piro gave a great description of various flavors that could indicate problems. Well, he left one out. Diaper pail. That's right. When I stepped up this last batch of yeast, I used some starter wort I had canned. The first step up went fine. When I did the second step up, I opened a quart of the canned wort and dumped it in the starter jug. Shook it and replaced the air lock. Then I noticed a foul odor in the air. Sure enough, I tracked it to the jar I had just poured the starter from. Horrible, foul, "diaper pail" is the best description. Needless to say, I wouldn't risk using it on a full batch. I let it ferment down and decided to try a test. It still smelled like diapers. When I brewed yesterday, I put about 1/2 Gal. of the batch in the starter jug (after pouring off the spent "wort"). I'm thinking I will let it ferment down and maybe even bottle it. Any opinions out there on what are the risks in tasting it? Pete Calinski East Amherst NY Near Buffalo NY 0 Degrees 30.21 Min North, 4 Degrees 05.11 Min. East of Jeff Renner Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 10:33:58 -0500 (EST) From: ALAN KEITH MEEKER <ameeker at welchlink.welch.jhu.edu> Subject: cfu D. Lamotte asks about the definition of cfu, specifically, what cfu/ml means. cfu stands for Colony Forming Unit. In saying that there is less than or equal to 1cfu/ml Wyeast means that if you were to culture 1 ml you would expect to see no more than one bacterial colony on average. - ------------------------------------------------------------------ "Graduate school is the snooze button on the alarm clock of life." -Jim Squire -Alan Meeker Johns Hopkins Hospital Dept. of Urology (410) 614-4974 __________________________________________________________________ Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 08:24:45 -0400 From: "Philip J Wilcox"<pjwilcox at cmsenergy.com> Subject: LiqBred From: Philip J Wilcox at CMS on 01/19/99 08:24 AM Madman Bob Fesmire asks about Oxygenators, Liquid Bread is the system I have and am basically happy with it. If you get the chance to shop the things side by side pay atention to the quality of the regulator. LB's is not of the higest quality. It is quite soft and has dented upon the chance droping. The threads in the inside are also becomming stripped after 10+ bottles of use over the last 3 years. In the past I stored the O2 bottle with the regulator off, but now its too much a PITA to get the regulator on and off. Has anyone else had this problem? I have also found that if you turn it on all the way to create a "rolling boil" effect in the carboy you are wasteing gas. I used several 1.1 cu ft tanks with only 3-5 uses, when your supposed to get 15-20. You only have to crank it up to the point where you can visabily notice it working. You do this twice for 15 seconds each. Letting the foam settle between blasts. We should be airating our starters also. But for how long for these tiny volumes? And is there a better way to sanitize the 316 SS stone they give us than boiling? Thats time consuming and another trip up and down the stairs for me. Suggestions?? Phil Wilcox Poison Frog Home Brewery Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 11:11:10 -0500 From: "Stephen Alexander" <steve-alexander at worldnet.att.net> Subject: He's baaaaack ! No it's not Nokomaree, just me. Distilling topic - Mike Allred asks several questions about liquors and several answers in a more or less correct vein and then Jeff Renner drove home the correct detailed description regarding scotch, blends and vatted whisky's. One or two points still deserve comment. Blended scotches shouldn't be ignored (do as I say, not as I do) even though they include grain alcohol - they can provide remarkable consistent and good flavor at a reasonable price. The current issue of the "'Malt Advocate" http://www.whiskeypages.com , has an interview with Richard Paterson, master whisky blender for Whyte& Mackay - rather nice job if you can get it. The same issue, as already noted on HBD, awards Hopdevil their domestic beer of the year award. Congrats Jim Busch and the guys at Victory Brewing - tho' I'm concerned that the attention paid to Hopdevil hides the fact that Victory makes some of the finest commercial lager beers in North America. Philip Wilcox adds. > B) single malt= 100% the same malt ie. Scot malt Scotmalt is a tradename for malts from 'Brewing Products Ltd', not a scotch whisky malt. > G) there is a book available from ThingsBeer (thingsbeer at voyager.net) on > how to distill corn fermetables for fuel purposes ... Be sure to get a license from the BATF before you try this - BATF takes no prisoners. Jeff Renner adds >Oddly enough, the distillers are not particularly fussy >about yeast and typically use dry yeast. I'm not sure that selecting dry yeast means that distillers are less picky. I know that one distillers yeast can ferment maltotetraose to a limited extent ! Several other selection criteria for whisk[e]y yeast are discussed in "Yeast Technology" by Gerald Reed et al. The flavor profile of the yeast is relatively less important, than in beer since many of the flavor active compounds are removed in distillation. Attenuation, speed, low fusel levels are probably much more critical. Mort could probably add a lot here if he's still listening. > Many Bourbon distillers are more fussy and culture their own yeast. They are more secretive - that is certain. >A typical Bourbon grain bill might be 70+% corn, 10-15% rye and/or wheat, >and 8-15% malted barley. It astounds me that as little as 8% malt >[..] I'm sure it is 6-row. And George DePiro adds the M&BS description of distilling malts in the UK. I have 15% malt + 85% gelatinized grain mashed at 56C with a bump to 62C and is fermented at 20C-30C(!) as a typical whiskey mash cycle. The SG of the mash wort is in the normal range for beer (like ~12.5P) because this yeast operate most satisfactorily at the SG. Of course bacterial and wild yeast infection is rampant since there is no boil. This matters little since the 'sins' of the ferment are purged in the distillation. The resulting wort is distilled by either a continuous or pot still - and the choice has a major impact on the resulting liquor. Pot distilled whisk[e]y (which is almost exclusively Scotch) gets some flavor profile from the wort while continuous or 'Coffey' distilled liquor gets very little flavor from the wort (except for the rye contribution) but primarily is flavored by the barrel or other post distillation additions. Tim Wauters notes on the rum topic ... >under the name Sucanat. It can be used as a substitute for some of those >difficult to locate (for me at least) British dark brewing sugars. Brown sugar, molasses, sucanat all have a similar flavor profile. IMO these three don't fit in IPAs. British 'chip sugar' or electropositive caramel is made with ammonia compounds and sugar syrup and caramelized to various extents. The flavor addition reportedly gives a notably dry finish note - sucanat doesn't. I'm not aware of a good substitute available to US HBers. === Decoction ... Jim Bentson writes that LKBonham writes then Brauwelt Int'l (1986) reports ... >(It concludes that the qualitative >differences in beers produced with decoction vs. infusion >mashes were "extradinordinally small," and that, "based on a I think the debate is still open for additional evidence. Kunze "TB&M" (revised in the mid 1990s) states of triple decoction, "...three mash processes produce very aromatic beers". As for Louis Bonham's and Andy Thomas' "RIMS vs Decoction" BT article, the results are to me inconclusive or perhaps favor decoction. The second part of the test involved a bock beer in which the decoction version suffered from some rather extreme fermentation problems. Taste comparisons for that beer can offer little information that would sway me. For the first part, a helles recipe, the judges preferred the decoction helles 5 to 1 - quite decisive. The judges did prefer the maltiness of the RIMs helles 3 to 1, but also made several references to grainy (negative) flavors in the RIMS helles. Another mitigating factor is that the BT article states, "... and Andy has found that shorter [10-15 minute decoction] boil times are sufficient to extract Bavarian style flavor". The article states in a footnote that Greg Noonan believes that longer boil times improve flavor. This was also the opinion of Art Beall, this year's Ninkasi winner (who won on lagers and a german wheat), in private communication. To be fair the BT article does accurately state these results, but many HBers seem to think that the clear conclusion is the decoction doesn't matter. The matter is "open to debate" is the stated article conclusion. What do I think ? That decoction is a lot of work and time but does very probably add a small but noticeable improvement in flavor. I also personally think that pressure cooking wort (see comments by me, C.Scandrett, and experiments by Charlie Rich in the HBD archives) adds many of the same benefits with more hardware and less time & effort. === >Momilies not withstanding, does anyone have an opinion, fact-based or not, >on non food-grade 5 and 6 gallon buckets ? Material within the plastic can leach out particularly into alcohol and fats. For non-food grade plastics, the residual plastisizer levels may be high, the colorants toxic, and in the case of recycled plastics may contain such nasties as insecticides residue. The FDA website has some notes on recycled plastics and their content. Is it dangerous ? Improbable, but why take a chance. You can often get free but dirty FG buckets simply by asking politely at a bakery, or new ones from US plastics. ==== After a 15 weak hiatus I've decided that continuing my self-imposed absence was not productive. RE HBD policy/censorship - Pat Babcock, whom I still disagree with in several ways, has shown considerable integrity in his POV on the topic and his addendum to the HBD policy page. For the others involved I have more faint praise. BTW can anyone answer why AHA policy is a valid topic, but HBD policy is not ? As John Gilmore said, "The Net interprets censorship as damage... and routes around it." Steve Return to table of contents
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