HOMEBREW Digest #674 Mon 08 July 1991

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		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  Peristaltic pumps (msharp)
  Fast Ferment -- Conclusion and More Wheat Beer (David J. Sylvester)
  re: hydrometer readings (Darryl Richman)
  RE: Wort Aeration Notes... (MIKE LIGAS)
  Re- REAL fruit juice (Bob Hettmansperger)
  Re: REAL fruit juice
  Oregon Micro-breweries beer fest (Greg Kushmerek)
  Mackison's after taste. ("DRCV06::GRAHAM")
  Brewing by the seat of your pants (Kevin L. McBride)
  Subscription Request (Bits_of_Magic)
  hydrometer readings (Brian Bliss)

Send submissions to homebrew%hpfcmi at hplabs.hp.com Send requests to homebrew-request%hpfcmi at hplabs.hp.com [Please do not send me requests for back issues] Archives are available from netlib at mthvax.cs.miami.edu
---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Thu, 4 Jul 91 7:28:01 EDT From: msharp at gull.ulowell.edu Subject: Peristaltic pumps In the last issue, Bruce Hill mentioned he uses a peristaltic pump to move his wort about. Unfortunately, he didn't say where he got it. So, where do you get these things? (without ripping one out of your hospital's heart-lung machine) - --Mike Sharp Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 4 Jul 91 08:47:38 AST From: counselling_centre at admin.cc.acadiau.ca please add me to this list Terry lane bitnet: counsel at acadia.ca Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 4 Jul 91 10:33:03 -0400 From: David J. Sylvester <sylveste at wsfasb.crd.ge.com> Subject: Fast Ferment -- Conclusion and More Wheat Beer Hi First, I would like to thank everyone who responded to my last post about a fast ferment on an attempt at a wheat beer. Sad tosay, I think the batch may have to go. Its been in the bottle for almost three weeks. I opened one after about two weeks. The carbonation was good, nice head but nasty smell and aftertaste. I'm going to wait and see what the effect of longer ageing will be before dumping. Now for my next question. I have 6lbs of Williams Weizenmalt extract and 2lbs of wheat malt. I would like to try a wheat beer with this. What I would like are some suggestions for hops and yeast. I plan on making a five-gallon batch. Is the entire 6lbs of extract too much for a wheat beer? My understanding is that wheat beers should be somewhat light-bodied. Since I plan on using some of the wheat malt (2-4 cups) I'm wondering if 6lbs of extract would make the beer to rich. As a related question, concerning yeast, does anyone care to comment on Whitbread's yeasts, ale and lager. Thanx in advance Dave Sylvester Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 4 Jul 91 07:57:06 -0700 From: darryl at ism.isc.com (Darryl Richman) Subject: re: hydrometer readings > >From: bliss at csrd.uiuc.edu (Brian Bliss) > from this I deduce that pure alcohol has a S.G of 4.2/5.0 = .84 > anybody with a bottle of everclear (and hydrometer) care to verify this? Pure ethanol has a specific gravity of 0.79... which is close enough to say .8 or 4/5. Therefore, it is true, that the Canadian 5% v/v beers have just the same amount of alcohol as the American 4% w/w beers. (Sorry to shatter that myth). > hypothetically, assume that you have 1.040 S.G unfermented wort, > with 5% potential alcohol (an approximation to the best of my memory), > and anything non-water is 100% fermentable. It ferments > completely - nothing left but alcohol and water (very hypothetical). > It should now have a S.G. of .95 * 1.000 + .05 * .840 = .992, not 1.000 > A hydrometer calculation would indicate that that you have lost > .048 S.G, and have an alcohol content of 6%, not 5%! Another way to look at this is that the *Plato scale measures % sugar in solution. (This is a table that was originally cooked up by Dr. Balling, and then improved by Dr. Plato.) As a reasonable approximation, each 4 specific gravity points represent one *Plato, or 1% sugar in solution by weight. Of course, with a beer wort, not all of that is sugar; 10% or so is going to be protein. And even of the sugars, some are still too complex to ferment (dextrins). This is why beer fermentations don't get down to (or below) 1.000, while mead and wine do. A rough approximation is that the yeast will ferment each 2 sugar molecules into 1 CO2 and 1 Ethanol. So each 2* (8 points of specific gravity) drop--with the alcohol removed--results in a 1% w/w alcohol addition. Consider now, that we have d = x + y where d is the drop in gravity noted x is the drop resulting from loss of sugar y is the drop resulting from the increase in alcohol For y, each drop of 1* in the x column results in the increase of alcohol by 0.5%. But that 0.5% registers as only 80% on the hydrometer because the alcohol is lighter than water. So, when we gain 0.5% alcohol, we lose 1 - 4/5 or 1/5 of a degreee. Therefore, y = (x/2)*1/5 = x/10 Now we have d = x + x/10 = 11/10 x which can be turned around to x = 10/11 d But we aren't really interested in the drop from loss of sugar, we want to know the drop from the increase in alcohol. Substituting from above y = 1/10 x = 1/10 * 10/11 d = 1/11 d Finally, the drop from the increase in alcohol is 1/5 the actual quantity of alcohol present. % alcohol w/w = 5 * y = 5/11 d Remember that this is all back of the envelope figuring, based on some approximations. In particular, this assumes an "ideal" fermentation. Yeast are not ideal fermenters, as they go through a respiratory phase (while oxygen is present) that doesn't produce ethanol, and also some of the carbohydrates are used to make more yeast and to keep as energy reserves. And some of the ethanol is transformed into esters. For backup, however, I see that Fred Eckhardt, in his _The Essentials of Beer Style_, cites that each *Plato drop results in the increase of % alcohol w/w by 0.4167. Greg Noonan in _Brewing Lager Beer_ also cites 0.42 *Plato as an approximation. 5/11 (0.45) is a 4% difference from above. > If the hydrometer manufacturers compensate for this, > the label on the scale "potential % alcohol" is erroneous. > > What they can adjust for is "% by weight" or "% by volume". > I would assume that hydrometer readings are calibrated for weight, > means you are weighing the stuff, but they could calibrate the > potential alcohol scale for volume. It's calibrated for weight, > is it not? If not, the rest of my argument is in err. > [...] > i.e. if the "potential % alcohol" scale on your hydrometer is > adjusted for weight, it is really giving you % alcohol by volume > after you subtract. Because hydrometers have been sold to winemakers in the past, they are calibrated for % alcohol v/v. Since, as you point out, there is a linear relationship between % v/v and % w/w, they could easily do it either way. --Darryl Richman Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 4 Jul 91 13:35:02 CDT From: bradley at dehn.math.nwu.edu (R. Bradley) Please remove me from your excellent Homebrew Digest mailing list. I'll be back in September!!! Rob (bradley at math.nwu.edu) Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 1991 02:49:00 -0400 From: MIKE LIGAS <LIGAS at SSCvax.CIS.McMaster.CA> Subject: RE: Wort Aeration Notes... In HBD 672 Kurt Swanson <kswanson at casbah.acns.nwu.edu> posted a most inters interesting suggestion. He described a tap system (remembered from High School Chemistry class) in which an extra vent hole on a faucet provided a means of perfusing the running water with air. He reasoned that this may be the basis for an effective wort aeration system. Well Kurt...you got me to thinkin' again! I am an all-grain brewer most of the time and that calls for a full 5 gallon boil followed by wort cooling via a counterflow wort chiller. It seems reasonable to suggest that a T-fitting could be placed at the end of the copper coil where the cooled wort is exiting. As the wort passes by the open side of the T-fitting it would be aerated in the same manner as water in the forementioned faucet. One could add an added level of security by placing a filter disc on air intake part of the T-fitting to provide sterile air. The filter disc would be the same as the one used in the 'Happy Yeast Infusion System' advertised in Zymurgy Magazine. These discs are available from lab supply companies and can provide filtration down to 2 microns. The one potential problem I can see with this hypothtical design is that the flow rate of the cooling wort may not be sufficient to pull air through the microscopic pores of the filter disc but it should work without the disc in place. I'll give it a shot next time I brew and report my findings to the forum. Mike Ligas ligas at sscvax.cis.mcmaster.ca PS. I hope my verbal description is clear...I was considering an attempt at ASCII graphics but chickened out. Let me know if you have any problems envisaging my suggestions. Return to table of contents
Date: 5 Jul 91 09:25:52 From: Bob Hettmansperger <Bob_Hettmansperger at klondike.bellcore.com> Subject: Re- REAL fruit juice Time: 09:15 AM Date: 7/5/91 Subject: Re: REAL fruit juice >From: Mark Sandrock <sandrock at aries.scs.uiuc.edu>: > >It's true. Many of the prepared fruit juices say "100% natural", and, >if you read the fine print, "10% fruit juice". Not to feed a thread that has nothing to do with homebrewing, but... I always assumed that 10% fruit juice meant that it has been cut down with water, not that it is 90% artificial. Now, back to homebrewing. Can anyone tell me if there is a homebrewing club on the Northern New Jersey shore (in the Red Bank or Asbury Park area)? Thanks, Bob Hettmansperger (also receiving mail at bobh at twinkie.bellcore.com) Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 1991 09:21 EDT From: Greg Kushmerek <GKUSHMER at RUBY.TUFTS.EDU> Subject: Oregon Micro-breweries beer fest A friend of mine just sent me a message from Boulder. He just got back from a trip in Oregon and noticed that there is some kind of micro-brewery beer festival coming up in a few weeks. Does anyone know if this is an annual event? I've already got my vacation plans booked for England and Germany in September. But this would be a great thing to plan for next year if it's an annual event. BTW -- Anyone know of a special XB recipie? I love Theakston XB for its smoothness, but I can't seem to reproduce it's texture or the head retention for that matter. I suppose I should exercise less and drink more so that I may brew more! Thanks - --gk Return to table of contents
Date: 5 Jul 91 10:07:00 EDT From: "DRCV06::GRAHAM" <graham%drcv06.decnet at drcvax.af.mil> Subject: Mackison's after taste. My experience with imported beers is very limited.A friend gave me a bottle of Mackison triple x stout yesterday. I tried it and was, well, not happy with the result. I thought Mackison was supposed to be a "sweet" stout. It was sort of sweet, and that was just fine. My problem was with the aftertaste, one that was reminiscent of fermented raisins ... or was it prunes ... Needless to say, I found the aftertaste unpleasant. Did I get a bad bottle, or is that a correct taste. What contributes to that strong after taste? How do I keep from duplicating it? More importantly, is Mackison considered a fine beer and my palate just uneducated? Dan Graham "Beer made with the Derry air." Return to table of contents
Date: Thu, 4 Jul 91 1:24:04 EDT From: gozer!klm at uunet.UU.NET (Kevin L. McBride) Subject: Brewing by the seat of your pants Just some random notes from my kitchen... My latest batch is ready to rack into secondary. I brewed it last Saturday almost entirely on a whim. I had almost no homebrew left in the house and needed to do something. I'm going to call it: "Clean out the closet Porter" Well, I *think* it's going to be a Porter. :-) Due to a combination of being overwhelmed with technical information at the conference, and discovering some supplies I didn't know I had languishing in the back of my pantry, I took a "screw it!" attitude, relaxed, didn't worry, and tossed it into the brewpot. Ingredients that I found lying around: 1 can Ironmaster Scottish Mild Ale extract 1 can Bierkeller light lager extract 1 lb. crushed crystal malt 1 lb. Munton & Fison Light DME 1/2 cup Lactose Ingredients that I bought for the occasion at the last minute: 1 oz. Brewer's Gold hop pellets 1 oz. Cascade hop pellets 1 pkg. Whitbread dry ale yeast Standard procedure - put crystal malt in cold water, heat to just shy of boil and sparge into brewpot, add malt extracts and water, bring to boil, add Brewer's Gold hops, boil a little over 1 hr., stop boil, add Cascade hops and chill on the way into fermenter. I tossed the dry yeast directly into the fermenter atop the cooled wort at about 10:00 pm. Original Gravity: Beats me, I didn't even check. The yeast started flocculating within an hour and by the next morning the air lock was burping continuously. Today, 4 days later, it is completely fermented out and I'm going to transfer it into secondary probably before I go to bed. While I still do mostly extract brews with some adjunct grains, I haven't brewed with canned extracts in quite some time. I was at a homebrew shop a while back and they had a great deal where if you bought 6 cans you got an extra discount and I said, "Yeah, sure, why not?" Actually made a couple or three pretty good brews from them too. I do prefer to use DME now though because you do get more bang for the buck or fermentables per pound. I can't wait to taste it and see if it's anywhere near decent or even what style it's close to (I think my original intent was to do a pale ale, but this is much too dark for that. :-) If it's good it will reaffirm my position that you don't need to get so scientific to brew good beer. You only need to get scientific to brew good beer consistently. I rather enjoy my own creations and have only tried on a couple of occasions to get really methodical about recreating some commercial brew. Some commercial brews are fairly easy to approximate if you're willing to overlook some of the minor rough edges. Others are difficult. Sam Adams Lager, for example, is pretty easy to approximate; start with enough light malt to make a moderately full bodied golden lager, add some crystal malt to give it that amber reddish color and more body, and go nuts with the Hallertau hops. A couple of my beer illiterate friends could hardly tell the difference. Of course, they also probably couldn't tell the difference between Bud and Pilsener Urquell. Why do we keep these people around? :-) I guess we need somebody who's willing to keep A-B in business. :-) I wish that this new beer was going to be ready in time to take to the next Brew Free or Die meeting. (Hmmm, maybe if I siphon a couple of bottles full while I'm racking and slightly overprime them they'll be ready in a week. They certainly wouldn't last much beyond that, but then again, I don't intend to let them stay around that long.) BTW, for any of you New Hampshire net.lurkers who don't already know, the next meeting of BFD is on Sat. July 13 at 3:00 p.m. Dan Hall can give you details. You listening Dan? :-) - -- Kevin McBride Brew Free or Die! uunet!wang!gozer!klm Return to table of contents
Date: Fri, 5 Jul 91 13:01:39 PDT From: Bits_of_Magic at cup.portal.com Subject: Subscription Request I'm sorry for sending this to the list, but repeated requests sent to homebrew-request have provided no response. I would like to subscribe to HBD. thanks, Evan Robinson bits_of_magic at cup.portal.com Return to table of contents
Date: Sat, 6 Jul 91 18:40:09 CDT From: bliss at csrd.uiuc.edu (Brian Bliss) Subject: hydrometer readings > original potential alcohol: 5 % > final potential alcohol: -1 % > - ----------------------------------- > unadjusted alcohol content: 6 % by weight > adjusted for error in F.G: 5 % by weight > 6 % by volume > > You should always be able to multiply by 5/6 to get the > % alcohol by wieght, adjusted for the error in taking the > final gravity. all equations are linear. > > i.e. if the "potential % alcohol" scale on your hydrometer is > adjusted for weight, it is really giving you % alcohol by volume > after you subtract. After thinking about it, I see that this is not coincedence. I be ready to defend myself from mathmatically-substantiated blows. I also checked to make sure that 1.040 SG => ~ 5% potential alcohol on my hydrometer, and it does... > to their Southern cousins is the belief (promulgated as much by American > tourists as our own kin) that our [Canadian] beer is stronger. Cruel man! > Are you going to shatter one of my cherished adolescent myths? I don't know, but I sure get drunker off of (most) Canadian beers than (most) American beers, In my limited experience north of the border. bb Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #674, 07/08/91 ************************************* -------
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