HOMEBREW Digest #837 Thu 05 March 1992

Digest #836 Digest #838

		Rob Gardner, Digest Coordinator

  Bottling Cold Beer (John S. Link)
  Shipping Hops from Australia (Peter Karp)
  Dead hops and the cider digest (Daniel Roman)
  arf asks about lagers and ales (Tony Babinec)
  HBU and IBU confusion (Tony Babinec)
  Problems with long ferment--WYeast 1056 (charlto)
  Anchor Christmas Ales ("Aaron Frost")
  BJCP Study Guide (Chuck Cox)
  Re : use of hops (Conn Copas)
  Re: Lager, Wyeast (korz)
  Re: Brewing Variables (korz)
  Effects of Light on Beer (mccamljv)
  Priming Sugar (Chris Shenton)
  IBU, AAU's, HBU (Chris Shenton)
  Pure Dry Yeast? (Bob Jones)
  Yet another Wyeast problem (GC Woods)
  More on growing hops? (Rob Winters)
  Priming help (Bob Hettmansperger)
  Flavor Profiles of Lagers vs. Ales (C.R. Saikley)
  Re: Lager, Kitchen Aid, Wyeast, Plastic, (Jeff Frane)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 6:54:50 EST From: John S. Link <link at prcrs.prc.com> Subject: Bottling Cold Beer (Hope this isn't a duplicate post) This weekend I bottled a batch of Pale Ale. I set the carboy outside overnight in the cold to cause any additional "stuff" to settle out. There was about 2 inches of ice on the top when I went to siphon off. All this doesn't concern me, however, the beer was _very_ cold when I bottled it. When the beer warms to room temperature will it cause excessive pressure? Also, have I stunned the yeast with the cold beer and should I worry about carbonation? (I have a right to worry; I just drank my last homebrew.) John Link Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 09:31:46 EST From: Peter Karp <karp at cs.columbia.edu> Subject: Shipping Hops from Australia Brett of Australia writes >>... I dont know whether they will ship overseas... I was going to write that US Customs does not permit any plant or meat products into the country but then remembered all the European hops imported here. Does anyone know the regulations for importing hops. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 09:55:42 EST From: tix!roman at uunet.UU.NET (Daniel Roman) Subject: Dead hops and the cider digest The outfit that I bought the hops from last year is sending me new plants this year at no cost. Because of the limited timeframe in which one is supposed to be able to buy and plant hops I was just looking for a way to insure that I had viable plants this year and did not have to go another season without starting some plants. I've been assured that this next shipment will grow successfully. We will see. For those that asked about the email address for the cider digest here it is: Reply-To: uunet!expo.lcs.mit.edu!cider Errors-To: uunet!expo.lcs.mit.edu!cider-request Cider Digest Forum for Discussion of Cider Issues Jay Hersh, Digest Coordinator Send submissions to cider at expo.lcs.mit.edu Send requests to cider-request@ expo.lcs.mit.edu _____________________________________________________________________ Dan Roman Internet: roman_d at timplex.com Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 9:42:16 CST From: tony at spss.com (Tony Babinec) Subject: arf asks about lagers and ales Here are some generalizations about lagers and ales. A lager is a beer fermented with lager yeast at lager fermentation temperatures and then cold-lagered. A lager yeast, other things equal, ferments some of the larger molecular sugars. The end result is a slightly more attenuated beer that is less sweet and has a "cleaner" taste. Lager fermentation temperatures are, say, 45 to 55 degrees. Other things equal, fermenting at these colder temperatures, provided the yeast is capable of it, minimizes production of esters which, if present, would produce "fruity" flavors in the beer. Fermenting at these temperatures takes longer, at least for homebrewers. If an ale can ferment in 3 to 7 days, lagers can routinely take 3 weeks or more, provided you've pitched with an adequate amount of starter. Inadequate pitching, or fermenting at a colder temperature, will prolong this process. Cold lagering means quietly storing the beer at cold temperatures, say 33 to 40 degrees. This helps smooth and finish the beer, and helps the yeast to drop out. Another aspect of the "clean" lager flavor is historical. Before yeasts and fermentation were fully understood, brewers would scoop the foam from one batch of beer, throw it into another batch, and keep fermentation going. As lager yeasts tended to be bottom fermenters, they were less likely to combine with or be displaced by airborn yeasts or other strange microorganisms. An ale is a beer made with ale yeast at ale temperatures which may or may not be cold-conditioned. Ale yeasts tend not to process some of the higher-weight molecular sugars, resulting in a relatively less attenuated and slightly sweeter beer. Ale yeast perform best in the range of 60 to 70 degrees, although some can work well at slightly lower temperatures. Especially at the higher end of the range, esters are produced. This also varies by strain of yeast, with some yeasts (Wyeast "American" ale) fermenting "cleaner" and others (Wyeast "British" ale) fermenting fruitier. Homebrewers will sometimes make an ale and ferment with "American" ale yeast in the mid-50s. On the other hand, many homebrewers have no control over temperature, and the kitchen cupboard in the summer can get into the high-70s or more. Ales can be "lagered," that is, cold-conditioned. This can help drop the yeast out. An example of a "yeasty" ale might be an unfiltered English real ale, while an example of an "unyeasty" ale might be a cold-conditioned and filtered German ale (Kolsch or Alt). In addition to the above broad generalities, there are hybrid styles. A "Steam," or California Common beer (as "Steam" is trademarked by Anchor) is a hoppy, amber beer fermented with a lager yeast at ale temperatures. Fred Eckhardt describes other hybrid styles, such as Cream Ale. Most American "industrial" beers are lagers. This in itself doesn't make them bad. They do tend to generally lack flavor, whether the flavor be from malt, hops, yeast, or anything else. One can make intensely flavorful lagers. Without getting into the "Best American Beer" debate, Sam Adams Doppelbock is a good commercial example. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 9:53:47 CST From: tony at spss.com (Tony Babinec) Subject: HBU and IBU confusion HBU is a recipe dosage. You take into account the alpha acid content of the hops when measuring them out for an intended beer style. IBU is a chemical measurement of the bitterness of the finished beer. Beer styles have accepted ranges of bitterness. In general, you won't know the IBU of your homebrew or a commercial beer without getting a chemical analysis of the bottle of beer. What happens in between hop dosage and bitterness of the finished beer are things like length of boil, vigor of boil, oxidation of the beer, and so forth. Taking the above into account, for a given beer, the IBU number is anywhere from 3 to 4.5 times the HBU number. You have to try a recipe or formulate one with hop additions, make beer using as good a process as you can, and taste the finished product. Then, adjust your hopping up or down. The Hops Special Issue of Zymurgy has some good articles with formulas detailing how to guesstimate the bitterness of your finished beer. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 08:47:39 CST From: charlto at ccu.UManitoba.CA Subject: Problems with long ferment--WYeast 1056 Hello. I don't know if this is relevant to the discussion, but I had a small problem with 1056 last November (or perhaps December, I can't remember). Anyway, my original gravity was 1.068, but it only fermented down to around 1.028. This seemed somewhat strange to me, but since I had not used 1056 for anything with a higher gravity than about 1.050, I just thought the alcohol tolerance might be low. The beer tastes great, though (myabe a little sweet...). I also made a few cultures of it. The cultures seem to look a little bit different than the last time I cultured 1056, but I can't be sure, because I haven't done it in about a year. Anyway, the yeast seemed to be fast enough, just didn't ferment out as far as I expected. Mike Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 04 Mar 92 11:09:27 -0500 From: "Aaron Frost" <afrost at mailbox.syr.edu> Subject: Anchor Christmas Ales To any to all: Having recently gained access to this wealth of knowledge digest I have decided to seek help on some questions that have been burning in me for some time. At the risk of stepping on the recipie creators (toes, feelings) does anyone know an approximate recipie for either of Anchor's excellent Christmas ales of 1990 or 1991. That 90 was oh so wonderful. Even if you only have a guestimate of what the special ingredents were I would appreciate your input. Thanks ... Aaron Return to table of contents
Date: Wed Mar 4 02:04:46 1992 From: synchro!chuck at uunet.UU.NET (Chuck Cox) Subject: BJCP Study Guide ====================================================================== BEER JUDGE CERTIFICATION EXAM STUDY GUIDE Edited by Chuck Cox (chuck at synchro.com) In collaboration with the Beer Judge Mailing List Copyright (c) 1992 by Chuck Cox. Permission is given for non-commercial distribution, provided this document is reproduced in full, including this copyright notice. ====================================================================== OUTLINE Outline Introduction Ingredients Grains Hops Water Yeast & Bacteria Miscellaneous Procedures & Chemistry Malting Mashing Brewing Fermentation & Conditioning Bottling / Kegging Characteristics Appearance Aroma Flavor Drinkability & Overall Impression Styles Ales Lagers Hybrids Miscellaneous Beer Judge Certification Program Ranks Experience Points Sanctioned Competitions Miscellany Example Questions Bibliography & Suggested Reading JudgeNet: the Beer Judge Mailing List ====================================================================== INTRODUCTION This guide is intended to identify the specific areas of knowledge that are required to pass the BJCP exam. It is not intended to teach you what you need to know to pass the exam, but rather to help you organize your thoughts and identify topics that deserve further study. The bibliography can help you locate sources for further information, however there is no substitute for experience. When you take the exam, be sure to take a couple of mechanical pencils with extra leads (or whatever you like to write with), a big eraser, and plenty of lined paper (I prefer graph paper). A note on spelling: There are no umlauts in the ASCII character set. I tried using the correct German alternative spelling by putting an 'e' after the vowel. It seems that it is customary in English to simply drop the umlaut, i.e. Kolsch instead of Koelsch, so that's what I did in this document. ====================================================================== INGREDIENTS You are expected to understand the purpose and effect of the common beer ingredients. You should know which ingredients are appropriate for the various beer styles. You should be familiar with geographic variations in ingredients. Grains Hordeum distichon - 2-row barley Hordeum vulgare - 6-row barley Triticum aestivum - wheat Anatomy - acrospire, embryo, endosperm, husk Carbohydrates - starches & sugars Tannins Proteins & Amino Acids Diastatic Power - strength of enzymes - degrees Lintner Color - degrees Lovibond type / degrees Lovibond / degrees Lintner / appropriate styles Low Kilned Malts (approx 175 F) 6-row Lager 1-2 / 100-200 American lagers, pilsner 2-row Lager 1-2 / 63-70 lagers Pale Ale 2-3 / 36 ales Malted Wheat 3 / 49 wheat beers High Kilned Malts (approx 220 F) Mild Ale 3-5 / 33 mild, brown ale Vienna 4 / 30 dortmunder, helles bock, vienna Munich 6-20 / 30 munich Specialty Malts Carapils 1-7 / 0 light ales, light lagers Crystal/Caramel 10-120 / 0 ales, lagers Chocolate 300-450 / 0 dark lagers, dark ales Black (patent) 500-1100 / 0 dark lagers, dark ales Adjuncts Roasted Barley 500-1100 / 0 stout, dunkel Flaked Barley Wheat ales, lagers Corn light ales, light lagers Rice light lagers Oats stout Hops Humulus lupulus - cultivated hop Anatomy - strobile, strig, bracteole, seed, lupulin gland Alpha & Beta Acids Essential Oils Rhyzome - root cutting origin - styles type alpha / aroma English - British ales Brewers Gold 5-9 / poor Bullion 6-9 / poor Fuggle 4-6 / good Goldings 4-6 / good Northern Brewer 6-10 / fair American - all styles Aquila 5-8 / fair Banner 8-12 / fair Cascade 4-7 / good Chinook 11-14 / fair Cluster 4-8 / fair Eroica 10-14 / fair Galena 12-15 / poor Nugget 12-14 / good Willamette 5-7 / good German / Czechoslovakian - continental lagers Hallertauer 3-6 / good Hersbrucker 3-6 / good Perle 6-11 / good Saaz 3-6 / good Tettnanger 3-6 / good Water Gypsum - calcium sulphate - CaSO4 Table Salt - sodium chloride - NaCl Epsom Salt - MgSO4 Hardness - temporary & permanent pH Minerals Ions Calcium Magnesium Sodium Bicarbonate Sulfate Chloride Yeast & Bacteria Saccharomyces cerevisiae - ale yeast - 50-75 F Saccharomyces uvarum - lager yeast - 32-55 F - formerly carlsbergensis Enterobacteriaceae - enteric bacteria - lambic Kloeckera apiculata - lambic yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis & lambicus - lambic yeasts Pediococcus damnosus - lactic acid bacteria - lambic Lactobacillus delbrueckii - lactic acid bacteria - berliner weisse Isolating & Culturing Miscellaneous Fermentables Malt Extract Sugar - corn sugar, honey, molasses, brown sugar Fruit Clarifying Agents Gelatin Isinglass Irish Moss Polyclar Herbs & Spices & Flavorings Coriander Seed Orange Peel Ginger Cinnamon Licorice Spruce Chocolate Coffee Smoke Malto-Dextrine - adds body Caramel - adds color Vegetables ====================================================================== PROCEDURES & CHEMISTRY You should be able to describe each procedure, explain its purpose, and describe how it works. You should be able to discuss how a procedure is varied for different beer styles. Malting step duration / temperature (F) / comments Steeping 40 hours / 60 / 40-45% moisture content Germination 5 days / 60 / modification breakdown starches & proteins Stewing/mashing 45-60 minutes / 210 / crystal malt Kilning 30-35 hours / 120-220 Roasting variable / 390 / dark malts Mashing step duration (minutes) / temperature (F) / comments Milling Mash-in adjust pH 5.0-5.8 calcium sulphate (gypsum) - pH- calcium chloride - pH- calcium carbonate - pH+ Acid Rest - / 95 / pale lager malts phytase: phytin -> phytic acid Protein Rest 30-45 / 122-131 / dark lager malts proteins -> amino acids Saccharification 20-60 / 150-158 Gelatinization - / 149 / minimum temperature Beta Amylase - / 150 / slower - less body Alpha Amylase - / 158 / faster - more body Dextrinase Beta Glucanase Mash-out 5 / 168 Sparging - / 170-180 Brewing Protein Coagulation - hot break Isomerization - hop bitterness extraction Caramelization Hop Aromatics Cooling - cold break Degrees of Extract = wort gravity X gallons / pounds of grain Fermentation & Conditioning Pitching - 70-80F Respiration - lag phase - aerobic - absorb oxygen & reduce pH Fermentation - growth phase - anaerobic - increase population & alcohol Sedimentation - stationary phase - flocculation Ales - 55-65F Lagers - 45-55F Nutrients - oxygen, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins Products - alcohol, water, CO2 Attenuation - reduction of gravity Autolysis Gravity & alcohol measurements Starches & dextrines Sugars - glucose, maltose, maltotriose, sucrose Unusual Systems - burton union, yorkshire stone square, lambic Bottling / Kegging Priming - corn sugar, malt extract Krausening Artificial Carbonation ====================================================================== CHARACTERISTICS You should be able to discuss the various characteristics of beer. You should be able to describe what causes each characteristic, and how to control it with variations in ingredients or procedures. Appearance Bottle - residue & sediment Head - texture & retention Color Clarity Alcohol Legs Brussels Lace Aroma Hoppiness Maltiness Alcohol Light Struck - skunked Flavor Hoppiness - bitterness Maltiness Body Carbonation Alcohol Astringent Phenolic - medicinal, bandaid, bubble gum Chlorophenol - plastic Diacetyl - butter, butterscotch DMS - dimethyl sulfide - cooked corn Estery - fruity Grainy - husky Metallic Nutty Oxidized - stale, papery, cardboardy Solvent Sour - acidic Salty Sweet Sulphury - yeasty - burton ales Acetaldehyde - cidery Cooked Vegetable Grassy Moldy - earthy Drinkability and Overall Impression ====================================================================== STYLES You should be familiar with the overall relationship of the various beer styles. You should be able to describe the ingredients, procedures and characteristics of each style. You should be able to give commercial examples of each style. Ales - top fermenting German Ales Alt - Dusseldorf - DAB Dark, Widmer, Zum Uerige, Zum Schlussel Kolsch - Koln (Cologne) - Kuppers, Fruh, Sion German Malted Wheat Ales Weizen - Weissbier - South Germany - Paulaner, Hofbrauhaus Hefe-weizen - sediment - Spaten Franziskaner, Wurtzburger Dunkel-weizen - EKU Weizenbock - Schneider Aventinius Berliner Weisse - lactic fermentation - Kindl, Schultheiss Belgian Unmalted Wheat Ales Wit - Hoegaarden, Steendonk, Dentergems Lambic - spontaneous fermentation - Senne - Cantillon, Belle-Vue Straight Fox - young Lambic Doux - sweetened Vieux Lambic - aged Blended - Lindemans, Morte Subite, Timmermans Faro - young - sweetened Gueuze - St Louis Fruit Kriek - cherries Framboise - raspberries Cassis - black currant Peche - peaches Muscat - muscat grapes Belgian Ales Pale - De Konnick, Palm Saison - Wallonia - Silly, Dupont Trappist - monastic - Rochefort, Westvlerten, Westmalle, Chimay House - single Dubbel - double Trippel - triple Abbey - commercial trappist-style - Corsendonk, Maredsous Red - sour - Rodenbach Flanders Brown Ale - Liefmans Goudenband Strong Golden Ales - Duvel, Brigand, Lucifer Strong Brown Ales - Gouden Carolus, Pauwel kwak Biere de Garde - Northern France - 3 Monts, St Leonard British / American Ales Pale Ales Bitter - Youngs, Fullers Ordinary - Brakspear Special Extra Special Scottish Ale - MacAndrews, McEwens/Younger, Belhaven Light Heavy Export Classic Pale Ale Burton Ale - Marstons, Bass, Worthington White Shield American Pale Ale - Gearys, Sierra Nevada, Red Hook Stock Ale - Samuel Adams, New England India Pale Ale - Anchor Liberty Ale, Ballantine IPA Brown Ale Mild - Grants Celtic, Brains, Adnams Pale Dark Northern Brown - Newcastle, Sam Smiths Nut Brown Southern Brown American Brown - Brooklyn Brown Porter Robust Porter - Sierra Nevada, Anchor Brown Porter - Yeungling, Molson Stout Sweet - lactose - Mackeson, Dragon Dry - Guinness, Murphys, Sierra Nevada Foreign - Guinness Foreign Extra Stout Imperial - Sam Smith, Grants, Conners, Courage Oatmeal - Sam Smith, Youngs Strong Ale English Old Ale - Theakstons Old Peculiar, Marstons Owd Rodger Strong Scotch Ale - Traquair House Ale Barleywine - Youngs Old Nick, Sierra Nevada Bigfoot Lagers - bottom fermenting American Lager - Anheuser Busch, Miller, Coors Diet Light Standard Premium Dry Dark American Bock - Shiner, Lone Star, Augsburger Malt Liquor - Molson Brador Continental Lagers Light - Augustiner Pilsner German - Warsteiner, Becks Czechoslovakian / Bohemian / Classic - Urquell, Pavichevich Dortmunder / Export - DAB, Dortmunder Union, Kronen Strong - Carlsberg Elephant Vienna / oktoberfest / marzen Vienna - Dos Equis Marzen / oktoberfest - Spaten, Paulaner, Wurtzburger Munich / Bavarian - Spaten, Paulaner Helles Dunkel Schwarzbier - Kulmbacher Rauchbier - Kaiserdom Bock Helles - maibock - Wurtzburger, Ayinger, Capital Dunkel - Aass, Upper Canada Doppel - Ayinger Celebrator, Paulaner Salvator Eis - Kulmbacher Hybrids Cream Ale - Hudepohl Little King's, Genesee Steam - California common beer - Anchor, New England Miscellaneous American Wheat - Anchor Fruit Beers - Sam Adams Cranberry Spiced Beers - Anchor Our Special Ale Specialty Beers - Vermont Pub & Brewery Smoked Porter ====================================================================== BEER JUDGE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM You should know how the BJCP is organized and what the requirements are for the various ranks. American Homebrewers Association - AHA Home Wine and Beer Trade Association - HWBTA Beer Judge Certification Program - BJCP Ranks exam score / experience points Recognized 60 / 0 Certified 70 / 5 National 80 / 20 Master 90 / 40 Honorary Master (temporary) Experience Points small / large / national (1st, 2nd, 3rd day) Organizer ? Asst Organizer ? Best of Show 1 / 2 / 5 Judge .5 / 1 / 2 Steward 0 / 0 / 1 Sanctioned Competitions Small Regional Large Regional National - annual AHA & HWBTA competitions Judging Form & Scoring ====================================================================== EXAMPLE QUESTIONS The format of the exam is 10 questions worth 10 points each. Discuss the causes of <a characteristic> in beer. Describe, relate, and differentiate between <two similar ingredients>. What characteristics does the brewmaster expect from <an ingredient>, what are the sources of these characteristics and what are the principle means of extraction. Describe, relate, and differentiate between <three related beer styles>. Explain the benefits of <a procedure>. Name two <a style> beers, describe the style. Describe what happens during <a procedure>. What is <a style> beer? Describe the flavor and aroma of <a characteristic>, explain its source and indicate a style of beer where it might be appropriate. ====================================================================== BIBLIOGRAPHY & SUGGESTED READING American Homebrewers Assoc. Beer and Brewing: conference transcripts. Boulder, CO: AHA, 1985-1991. American Homebrewers Assoc. National Competition Rules & Regulations Boulder, CO: AHA, 1992 American Homebrewers Assoc. Zymurgy, special issues. Boulder, CO: AHA, 1985-1991. Eckhardt, Fred. The Essentials of Beer Style. Portland, OR: All Brewers Publication Service, 1989. Fix, George. Principles of Brewing Science. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1989. Forget, Carl, ed. Dictionary of Beer and Brewing. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1988. Foster, Terry. Pale Ale. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1990. Guinard, Jean-Xavier. Lambic. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1990. Jackson, Michael. The New World Guide to Beer. Philadelphia, PA: Running Press, 1988. Jackson, Michael. The Simon & Schuster Pocket Guide to Beer. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1991. Miller, Dave. The Complete Handbook of Homebrewing. Pownal, VT: Garden Way, 1988. Neve, R.A. Hops. London, UK: Chapman and Hall, 1991. Noonan, Gregory. Brewing Lager Beer. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1986. Papazian, Charlie. The New Complete Joy of Homebrewing. New York, NY: Avon Books, 1991. ====================================================================== JudgeNet: THE BEER JUDGE MAILING LIST This study guide was proofed, critiqued, and improved by members of the Beer Judge Mailing List. This is an Internet electronic mailing list dedicated to the discussion of issues of interest to beer judges and homebrew competition organizers. Beer judges with access to the Internet are encouraged to join the list. Send subscription requests, including your email address, name and judging rank, to judge-request@ synchro.com. There are no questions about JudgeNet on the exam. ====================================================================== Return to table of contents
Date: Tue, 3 Mar 92 16:17:22 GMT From: Conn Copas <C.V.Copas at loughborough.ac.uk> Subject: Re : use of hops > Therefore, any hops you boil > for longer than about 15 minutes are effectively only for bittering. > It has been recently noted in this forum, that maybe the variety of > the hops you use for bittering can make a difference in the flavor. > The jury is still out on this issue. At the risk of sounding contradictory, the jury has delivered judgement where I am concerned. Agreed, I would have difficulty discriminating two closely related varieties, such as Hallertau and Saaz, but no amount of boiling will disguise a generous dose of Northern Brewer in a pilsener. Goldings I find to give a very noticeable blackcurrant flavour in light beers. Last year's wild hops smelt wonderful in a dried state, but were overwhelmingly coarse/sickly in terms of flavour. - -- Loughborough University of Technology tel : (0509)263171 ext 4164 Computer-Human Interaction Research Centre fax : (0509)610815 Leicestershire LE11 3TU e-mail - (Janet):C.V.Copas at uk.ac.lut G Britain (Internet):C.V.Copas%lut.ac.uk at nsfnet-relay.ac.uk Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 11:43 CST From: korz at ihlpl.att.com Subject: Re: Lager, Wyeast Jack writes: > I would like to hear from anyone who can describe the difference between a > lager and an ale, in terms of the taste. Ales are inherently fruity and lagers are not fruity. The lower fermentation temperatures cause the yeast to produce less of the esters which give beer a fruity aroma and flavor. Another flavor component that is acceptable in small amounts in ale and not in lager is diacetyl -- a butterscotch flavor (try Samuel Smith's Old Brewery Pale Ale or Newcastle Brown Ale for a taste of high-diacetyl ales). (You can try Orval or St. Louis Gueuze as an example of very fruity ales.) > I am thinking in terms of everything else being equal, just what are the > effects of cold, long-term lagering on the taste of a beer. According to David Miller in his book Continental Pilsener, there are three major reasons for lagering: "clarification, carbonation and flavor maturation," but adds that the last of these "can be largely eliminated by modern fermentation techniques," which he describes. He is not very specific, however, regarding this "flavor maturation." One aspect that is clearly part of what he calls "flavor maturation" is the reduction of diacetyl. Part of the "modern fermentation techniques" he describes involve methods to reduce the diacetyl that is normally produced by the yeast earlier in the ferment and then reduced by the yeast during lagering. A reduction in the creation of diacetyl lessens the time needed to reduce it. Why not filter in stead of lagering to clarify? Well, Miller addresses this also. Filtering will not only remove the yeast, but also proteins which are essential to the head retention, body and flavor of the finished beer. As you well know, American industrial beers don't have any head retention and little or no body, so filtering is simply part of the process of making beer of the American industrial style. > If one made a batch of beer and lagered half in cold and used ale yeast at > ale temperatures on the other half, what would one expect to taste that makes > it all worth while? In my own personal brewing, I don't think it's worth while, but I *like* the fruity flavors of ales. I will be brewing lagers this summer in my fridge just to see if can brew a lager, but not because they are one of my favorite styles. > Breweries spend zillions to lager so I presume there must be a reason but as > most of what they make, isn't worthy of the name beer, I can't help but > wonder why they bother. As noted by Miller, modern fermentation techniques can reduce the need to lager as long, and filtering also reduces the need to lager, so modern breweries don't need to expend gobs of money to make lager. > As I keep looking for ways of improving my beer, I don't want to overlook > anything but this just seems like lunacy, (sort of like using liquid yeast). If you've tried liquid yeast and it hasn't improved your beer from dry yeast, then you've got sanitation problems. Switching to Wyeast improved my beer a quantum leap -- no longer was it unmistakably "home brewed"... in a double-blind test against commercial English Ales it held it's own. > >Every day I give the relief valve a pull and get about a 3 second blast of > CO2. The gravity, however does not seem to be changing. The beer tastes OK. > Why is it not fermenting out? > > I suspect you have unwitingly exploded the myth of "Wyeast purity". Sounds > like they cheated on the old family recipe and slipped you a bit of Red Star. I think you are directing the blame in the wrong place -- I've never had a problem with bacterial infection when I've used Wyeast and a recent batch made with M&F dry yeast did. If there's a bacterial infection, I blame environment (dusty basement, etc.) or technique (sanitizing the racking tube and then putting it on top of the drier, etc.). This brings up a point I haven't noticed in HBD: I transfer from kettle to primary and primary to secondary in my laundry room -- I make it a point to NOT USE THE DRIER FOR AT LEAST TWO DAYS BEFORE DOING BEER TRANSFER. The dust that gets kicked up is sure to find it's way into the beer. > Champaign bottles are ideal for beer for two. > You can use plastic champaign corks or crown caps on most of them. Specifically, american beer (and soda) crown caps work on american "champagne" (sparkling wine, actually) bottles. This brings up another point I'd like to ask everyone about -- do you know where I can get a capper and caps to fit Lindeman's bottles (they are a bit bigger than the american crown cap)? Al. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 11:57 CST From: korz at ihlpl.att.com Subject: Re: Brewing Variables Carlo writes: > Here are some of the topics I'd like to understand: > >1) Affect of thin vs. thick mash > - different enzymes are activated (like pH changes??) >2) Affect of single step (~153F) vs. Step vs. Decoction > - Acid Rest->Protein Rest->Starch Conv. (depends on type of malt > and style, but what are the processes?) One could write 10 Mbytes on your questions, and I'm afraid that if I start, I will. These are pretty complex issues. I suggest you pick up the All-grain special issue of Zymurgy (call the AHA at 303-447-0816). There's a great article on Step Infusion vs. Decoction by David Miller in it. Please note that he fails to mention the down-side of the decoctions: boiling the grains will extract tannins from the husks which will increase the astringency of your beer and will cause chill-haze problems. Al. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 13:42:58 -0500 From: mccamljv at ldpfi.dnet.dupont.com Subject: Effects of Light on Beer What exactly is the effect of light on fermenting beer?? I am aware that a 'skunky' smell/taste can be produced if light is allowed to react with a batch of homebrew, but, at what magnitudes?? The reason I am posing this question, is that I successfully brewed my first two batches without any protection from light (ignorance is bliss) and both turned out fine. The batches were allowed to ferment in a glass carboy behind a shower curtain in an unused bathroom with a big window and fluorescent lights. True not a lot of direct light, but plenty of indirect. The brews were a brown ale and a stout, would the dark colors have afforded some degree of natural protection?? I have since fermented with covered carboy's with no taste difference detected. Any response will be greatly appreciated. If enough interest is generated, I will post a summary. Thanks in advance, -Joel McCamley "Constantly Relaxing, not Worrying and having a Homebrew" Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 11:31:26 PST From: css at haze.ccsf.caltech.edu (Chris Shenton) Subject: Priming Sugar Bob Hettmansperger <Bob_Hettmansperger at klondike.bellcore.com> writes: > > I've discovered that I forgot to order priming sugar ... I was > wondering if corn sugar was available in any other type of store > that might be closer by If you have any dry malt, that's ideal. I think you need about 30% more than corn sugar. Extract syrup also works, but I'm not sure of the proportions there. Just boil some up in enough water to make it pourable, then use like normal. I regularly prime with (unfermented) saved wort -- works well. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 11:43:09 PST From: css at haze.ccsf.caltech.edu (Chris Shenton) Subject: IBU, AAU's, HBU On Mar 3, Walter H. Gude <whg at tellabf.tellabs.com > writes: > Ay, the confusion. As I understand it: > > HBUs are # of oz. of hops times alpha acid. > AAUs are (#oz. * AA) per gallon of wort. (or is it per 5 gal.) > And IBU are probalby a linear multiplication of AAUs. (i.e. AAUs*Constant). Yeah, it's a pain. AAUs and HBUs are the same thing, as far as I've ever been able to tell: ounces X alpha. The problem with it is that it ignores the quantity of beer (eg: 10 AAUs in 5 gallons will taste different than 10 AAUs in 10 gallons). That's my biggest complaint -- it doesn't describe bitterness in a batch-size independent way. (In it's defense, it *is* like saying 10# grain -- in 5 gallons, or 10 gallons?) I've switched to IBUs because I can compare with known beers bitterness like those listed in Fred Eckerds wonderfully useful (hype!) book, The Essentials of Beer Styles. I still use AAUs or -- gasp -- ounces when I'm using the hops after the boil, when their bitterness will *not* be extracted. IBUs are meaningless there, because IBUs also depend on the hop utilization based on boiling time. Hope this helps more than it confuses. Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 1992 12:05 PDT From: Bob Jones <BJONES at NOVA.llnl.gov> Subject: Pure Dry Yeast? Would any of you buy liquid cultures if pure dry yeast cultures were available? I know I wouldn't. Why don't someone take the next step and make dry yeast cultures? I would have never guessed brewers would pay $3.50 for yeast. I suspect we all would pay even a little more for pure dry yeast. Think of the advantages, more stable, higher pitch rates and no breaking pouches. I would venture a guess that Wyeast would be out of business almost overnight. Could it be that complex to take the next step and vacuum dehydrate the pure liquid culture? Sounds like a good side business for someone. Bob Jones Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 1992 12:26:19 -0800 From: roth at avsan1.irvine.dg.com (John Roth) I've been receiving HBD for only a few weeks. With regard to home grown hops, and hop storage in general, has anyone tried the vacuum sealers for food leftovers? Seems to me like an ideal way to minimize oxidation of home grown hops. -John Return to table of contents
Date: 4 Mar 92 15:22:30 EST (Wed) From: GC Woods <gcw at garage.att.com> Subject: Yet another Wyeast problem >From: Ray Mrohs >I must say, my first encounter with Wyeast was very 'enlightening'. >Knowing what I did about Wyeast (mostly thru HBD), I was very delicate >in trying to break the inner packet while, of course, holding down the >whole envelope above the bottom seam. All the packet did was squish >around the inside of the envelope until I gave it a good whack and then >*SPLAT*, the contents shot out the middle of the *SIDE* seam, across the After using Wyeast for around 7 - 10 batches I finally had my first problem and it is just like the problem Ray had in HBD #836 - the inner packet would not break. The problem I feel is that there was too much oxygen in the outer packet, so not enough pressure could be placed on the inner packet. At one point I had my entire weight (140lb) on the packet and nothing happened (I was impressed that the outside packet held), so then I tried to isolate the inner packet at one end and squeeze, but the outside packet broke. Unlike Ray I used the inner packet in a starter - hope there is enough nutrient to get it going! The Wyeast package I used was dated Jan 1 92 - is it possible the yeast nutrient picked up some sort of infection which made the packet swell a little more than normal or could there have been just a little to much oxygen placed in the packet during manufacturing? Geoff Woods gcw at garage.att.com Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 1992 16:18:27 -0500 (EST) From: RWINTERS at nhqvax.hq.nasa.gov (Rob Winters) Subject: More on growing hops? I'd be very interested in trying out growing my own hops. Could anyone post a primer? Sources? Sage advice? Thanks! Rob Winters - --- Miller Lite: "It's **it and that's that." Budweiser: "Nothing beats like a Bud." Olympia: "It's water." Return to table of contents
Date: 4 Mar 92 17:02:44 From: Bob Hettmansperger <Bob_Hettmansperger at klondike.bellcore.com> Subject: Priming help Priming help Wow. Thanks to everone who responded so fast on corn sugar substitutes for priming. The suggestions came fast a furious for awhile there. Here's a summary in order of suggestion: 1) Honey: By far the popular suggestion; sworn by some as preferable in general 2) Cane sugar: Some said it would taste a little worse, but not much 3) DME: See past "discussions" in HBD about the merits of this 4) Brown sugar: Some said this was more appropriate for a Pale Ale anyway 5) Molasses: ditto 6) Corn Syrup: worth a shot 7) Coca Cola: just kidding As it turns out, the net has come through and someone in my brewing club ("Hey now-") can "lend" me some priming suger (hmm, how's he going to ask for it to be paid back I wonder...). Nice to know the HBD can still show a friendly face. -Bob Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 14:09:58 PST From: grumpy!cr at uunet.UU.NET (C.R. Saikley) Subject: Flavor Profiles of Lagers vs. Ales Return to table of contents
Date: Wed, 4 Mar 92 11:40 PST From: gummitch at techbook.com (Jeff Frane) Subject: Re: Lager, Kitchen Aid, Wyeast, Plastic, Jack Schmidling writes: > > I would like to hear from anyone who can describe the difference between a > lager and an ale, in terms of the taste. > > I am thinking in terms of everything else being equal, just what are the > effects of cold, long-term lagering on the taste of a beer. > > If one made a batch of beer and lagered half in cold and used ale yeast at > ale temperatures on the other half, what would one expect to taste that makes > it all worth while? > > Breweries spend zillions to lager so I presume there must be a reason but as > most of what they make, isn't worthy of the name beer, I can't help but > wonder why they bother. > Probably you ought to try drinking some good lagers; it's as difficult explaining the difference between ale and lager to someone who clearly doesn't understand it as explaining color to a blind man. > As I keep looking for ways of improving my beer, I don't want to overlook > anything but this just seems like lunacy, (sort of like using liquid yeast). > If you're ignoring liquid yeast, you can't be looking too hard. > >Every day I give the relief valve a pull and get about a 3 second blast of > CO2. The gravity, however does not seem to be changing. The beer tastes OK. > Why is it not fermenting out? > > Standby! I had a similar problem with a batch that fermented like new beer > for several months. A vile taste eventually caught up with the bubbles. > > I suspect you have unwitingly exploded the myth of "Wyeast purity". Sounds > like they cheated on the old family recipe and slipped you a bit of Red Star. > Yes, it's pretty obvious from all the evidence, that WYeast was responsible for your contaminated beer. Although you don't believe in using liquid yeast, so clearly this wasn't the problem with *your* beer. Hmmmm. It really gets your goat that somewhere someone is doing something right and making a living at it, doesn't it? - --Jeff Frane Return to table of contents
End of HOMEBREW Digest #837, 03/05/92